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Unformatted text preview: cryptography, but they have rules regarding the sale and use of cryptography in their country. All products must be certified: Either they must meet a published specification, or the company proprietary specification must be provided to the government. The government may also ask for two units for their own use. Companies must have a license to sell cryptography within France; the license specifies the target market. Users must have a license to buy and use cryptography; the license includes a statement to the effect that users must be prepared to give up their keys to the government up to four months after use. This restriction may be waived in some cases: for banks, large companies, and so on. And there is no use license requirement for cryptography exportable from the U.S. — Germany follows the CoCom guidelines, requiring a license to export cryptography. They specifically maintain control of public-domain and mass-market cryptography software. — Israel has import restrictions, but no one seems to know what they are. — Belgium, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, and the United Kingdom follow the CoCom guidelines on cryptography, requiring a license for export. — Brazil, India, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, and Switzerland have no import or export controls on cryptography. 25.16 Legal Issues
Are digital signatures real signatures? Will they stand up in court? Some preliminary legal research has resulted in the opinion that digital signatures would meet the requirements of legally binding signatures for most purposes, including commercial use as defined in the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). A GAO (General Accounting Office) decision, made at the request of NIST, opines that digital signatures will meet the legal standards of handwritten signatures . The Utah Digital Signature Act went into effect on May 1, 1995, providing a legal framework for the use of digital signatures in the judicial system. California has a bill pending, while Oregon and Washington are still writing theirs. Texas and Florida are right behind. By this book’s publication, more states will have followed suit. The American Bar Association (EDI and Information Technology Division of the Science and Technology Section) produced a model act for states to use for their own legislation. The act attempts to incorporate digital signatures into the existing legal infrastructure for signatures...
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- Fall '10