Unformatted text preview: hers were requested to ask the NSA’s opinion on whether disclosure of results would adversely affect the national interest before publication. As the eighties progressed, pressure focused more on the practice than the study of cryptography. Existing laws gave the NSA the power, through the Department of State, to regulate the export of cryptographic equipment. As business became more and more international and the American fraction of the world market declined, the pressure to have a single product in both domestic and offshore markets increased. Such single products were subject to export control and thus the NSA acquired substantial influence not only over what was exported, but also over what was sold in the United States. As this is written, a new challenge confronts the public practice of cryptography. The government has augmented the widely published and available Data Encryption Standard, with a secret algorithm implemented in tamper–resistant chips. These chips will incorporate a codified mechanism of government monitoring. The negative aspects of this “key–escrow” program range from a potentially disastrous impact on personal privacy to the high cost of having to add hardware to products that had previously encrypted in software. So far key escrow products are enjoying less than stellar sales and the scheme has attracted widespread negative comment, especially from the independent cryptographers. Some people, however, see more future in programming than politicking and have redoubled their efforts to provide the world with strong cryptography that is accessible to public scrutiny. A sharp step back from the notion that export control law could supersede the First Amendment seemed to have been taken in 1980 when the Federal Register announcement of a revision to ITAR included the statement: “...provision has been added to make it clear that the regulation of the export of technical data does not purport to interfere with the First Amendment rights of individuals.” But the fact th...
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- Fall '10
- Cryptography, Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, EarthWeb, Search Search Tips