applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

Choosing good s boxes is not an easy task there are

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Unformatted text preview: [857]: If EK(P) = C, then Ef(K) (g(P,K)) = h(C,K) where f, g, and h are simple functions. By simple I mean that they are easy to compute, much easier than an iteration of the block cipher. In DES, f is the bit-wise complement of K, g is the bit-wise complement of P, and h is the bit-wise complement of C. This is a result of XoRing the key into part of the text. In a good block cipher, there are no simple relations. Methods for finding some of these weaknesses are in [917]. Group Structure When discussing an algorithm, the question of whether it is a group arises. The elements of the group are the ciphertext blocks with each possible key, and the group operation is composition. Looking at an algorithmos group structure is an attempt to get a handle on just how much extra scrambling happens under multiple encryption. The useful question is, however, not whether an algorithm is actually a group, but just how close to a group it is. If it were only lacking one element, it wouldnot be a group; but double encryption would be—statistically speaking—a waste of time. The work on DES showed that DES is very far away from being a group. There are still some interesting questions about the semigroup that DES encryption generates. Does it contain the identity: That is, does it even generate a group? To put it another way, does some combination of encryption (not decryption) operations eventually generate the identity function? If so, how long is the shortest such combination? The goal is to estimate the size of the keyspace for a theoretical brute-force attack, and the result is a greatest lower bound on the keyspace entropy. Weak Keys In a good block cipher, all keys are equally strong. Algorithms with a small number of weak keys, like DES, are generally no problem. The odds of picking one at random are very small, and it’s easy to test for and discard them. However, these weak keys can sometimes be exploited if the block cipher is used as a one-way hash function (see Section 18.11). Strength...
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