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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

If the shared secret is a private key to a digital

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Unformatted text preview: io 1: Colonels Alice, Bob, and Carol are in a bunker deep below some isolated field. One day, they get a coded message from the president: “Launch the missiles. We’re going to eradicate the last vestiges of neural network research in the country.” Alice, Bob, and Carol reveal their shadows, but Carol enters a random number. She’s actually a pacifist and doesn’t want the missiles launched. Since Carol doesn’t enter the correct shadow, the secret they recover is the wrong secret. The missiles stay in their silos. Even worse, no one knows why. Alice and Bob, even if they work together, cannot prove that Carol’s shadow is invalid. Scenario 2: Colonels Alice and Bob are sitting in the bunker with Mallory. Mallory has disguised himself as a colonel and none of the others is the wiser. The same message comes in from the president, and everyone reveals their shadows. “Bwa-ha-ha!” shouts Mallory. “I faked that message from the president. Now I know both of your shadows.” He races up the staircase and escapes before anyone can catch him. Scenario 3: Colonels Alice, Bob, and Carol are sitting in the bunker with Mallory, who is again disguised. (Remember, Mallory doesn’t have a valid shadow.) The same message comes in from the president and everyone reveals their shadows. Mallory reveals his shadow only after he has heard the other three. Since only three shadows are needed to reconstruct the secret, he can quickly create a valid shadow and reveals that. Now, not only does he know the secret, but no one realizes that he isn’t part of the scheme. Some protocols that handle these sorts of cheaters are discussed in Section 23.2. Secret Sharing without Trent A bank wants its vault to open only if three out of five officers enter their keys. This sounds like a basic (3,5)-threshold scheme, but there’s a catch. No one is to know the entire secret. There is no Trent to divide the secret up into five pieces. There are protocols by which the five officers can create a secret and e...
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