Unformatted text preview: V; Royal PTT Nederland NV, PTT Research; Katholieke Universiteit Leuven; and Aarhus Universitet. After calls for algorithms in 1989 and 1991 , 32 submissions from around the world, and a 350 man-month evaluation project, the consortium published RIPE Integrity Primitives [1305,1332]. The report included an introduction and some basic integrity concepts, and these primitives: MDC-4 (see Section 18.11), RIPE-MD (see Section 18.8), RIPE-MAC (see Section 18.14), IBC-HASH, SKID (see Section 3.2), RSA, COMSET (see Section 16.1), and RSA key generation. 25.8 Conditional Access for Europe (CAFE)
Conditional Access for Europe (CAFE) is a project in the European Community’s ESPRIT program [204,205]. Work began in December 1992 and is scheduled to be finished by the end of 1995. The consortium involved consists of groups for social and market studies (Cardware, Institut für Sozialforschung), software and hardware manufacturers (DigiCash, Gemplus, Ingenico, Siemens), and cryptographers (CWI Amsterdam, PTT Research Netherlands, SPET, Sintef Delab Trondheim, Universities of Århus, Hildesheim and Leuven). The goal is to develop systems for conditional access, particularly digital payment systems. Payment systems must give legal certainty to everybody at all times and require as little trust as possible—this certainty should not depend on the tamper-resistance of any devices. The basic device for CAFE is an electronic wallet: a small computer that looks something like a pocket calculator. It has a battery, keyboard, screen, and an infrared channel for communicating with other wallets. Every user owns and uses his own wallet, which administers his rights and guarantees his security. A device with a keyboard and screen has an advantage over a smart card; it can operate independent of a terminal. A user can directly enter his password and the amount of the payment. The user does not have to give his wallet up to complete a transaction, unlike the current situation with credit cards. Additional features are: — Offline transactions. The purpose of the system is to replace sm...
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