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Unformatted text preview: ng identity must hold true: D(E(M)) = M Authentication, Integrity, and Nonrepudiation
In addition to providing confidentiality, cryptography is often asked to do other jobs: — Authentication. It should be possible for the receiver of a message to ascertain its origin; an intruder should not be able to masquerade as someone else. — Integrity. It should be possible for the receiver of a message to verify that it has not been modified in transit; an intruder should not be able to substitute a false message for a legitimate one. — Nonrepudiation. A sender should not be able to falsely deny later that he sent a message. These are vital requirements for social interaction on computers, and are analogous to face-to-face interactions. That someone is who he says he is...that someone’s credentials—whether a driver’s license, a medical degree, or a passport—are valid...that a document purporting to come from a person actually came from that person.... These are the things that authentication, integrity, and nonrepudiation provide. Algorithms and Keys
A cryptographic algorithm, also called a cipher, is the mathematical function used for encryption and decryption. (Generally, there are two related functions: one for encryption and the other for decryption.) If the security of an algorithm is based on keeping the way that algorithm works a secret, it is a restricted algorithm. Restricted algorithms have historical interest, but are woefully inadequate by today’s standards. A large or changing group of users cannot use them, because every time a user leaves the group everyone else must switch to a different algorithm. If someone accidentally reveals the secret, everyone must change their algorithm. Even more damning, restricted algorithms allow no quality control or standardization. Every group of users must have their own unique algorithm. Such a group can’t use off-the-shelf hardware or software products; an eavesdropper can buy the same product and learn the algorithm. They ha...
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- Fall '10