applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

It uses two keys ka and kb each 64 bits long the

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Unformatted text preview: such as the Pentium and the PowerPC. Blowfish is not suitable for applications, such as packet switching, with frequent key changes, or as a one-way hash function. Its large memory requirement makes it infeasible for smart card applications. Description of Blowfish Blowfish is a 64-bit block cipher with a variable-length key. The algorithm consists of two parts: key expansion and data encryption. Key expansion converts a key of up to 448 bits into several subkey arrays totaling 4168 bytes. Data encryption consists of a simple function iterated 16 times. Each round consists of a key-dependent permutation, and a key- and data-dependent substitution. All operations are additions and XORs on 32-bit words. The only additional operations are four indexed array data lookups per round. Blowfish uses a large number of subkeys. These keys must be precomputed before any data encryption or decryption. The P-array consists of 18 32-bit subkeys: P1, P2,..., P18 Four 32-bit S-boxes have 256 entries each: S1,0, S1,1,..., S1,255 S2,0, S2,1,..., S2,255 S3,0, S3,1,..., S3,255 S4,0, S4,1,..., S4,255 The exact method used to calculate these subkeys will be described later in this section. Figure 14.2 Blowfish. Blowfish is a Feistel network (see Section 14.10) consisting of 16 rounds. The input is a 64-bit data element, x. To encrypt: Divide x into two 32-bit halves: xL, xR For i = 1 to 16: xL = xL • Pi xR = F(xL) • xR Swap xL and xR Swap xL and xR (Undo the last swap.) xR = xR • P17 xL = xL • P18 Recombine xL and xR Figure 14.3 Function F. Function F is as follows (see Figure 14.3): Divide xL into four eight-bit quarters: a, b, c, and d F(xL) = ((S1,a + S2,b mod 232) • S3,c) + S4,d mod 232 Decryption is exactly the same as encryption, except that P1, P2,..., P18 are used in the reverse order. Implementations of Blowfish that require the fastest speeds should unroll the loop and ensure that all subkeys are stored in cache. See [568] for details. The subkeys are calculated using t...
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