Unformatted text preview: b verifies with Alice’s public key and recovers the message. VA(SA(M)) = M Signing before encrypting seems natural. When Alice writes a letter, she signs it and then puts it in an envelope. If she put the letter in the envelope unsigned and then signed the envelope, then Bob might worry if the letter hadn’t been covertly replaced. If Bob showed to Carol Alice’s letter and envelope, Carol might accuse Bob of lying about which letter arrived in which envelope. In electronic correspondence as well, signing before encrypting is a prudent practice . Not only is it more secure—an adversary can’t remove a signature from an encrypted message and add his own—but there are legal considerations: If the text to be signed is not visible to the signer when he affixes his signature, then the signature may have little legal force . And there are some cryptanalytic attacks against this technique with RSA signatures (see Section 19.3). There’s no reason Alice has to use the same public-key/private-key key pair for encrypting and signing. She can have two key pairs: one for encryption and the other for signatures. Separation has its advantages: she can surrender her encryption key to the police without compromising her signature, one key can be escrowed (see Section 4.13) without affecting the other, and the keys can have different sizes and can expire at different times. Of course, timestamps should be used with this protocol to prevent reuse of messages. Timestamps can also protect against other potential pitfalls, such as the one described below. Previous Table of Contents Next Products | Contact Us | About Us | Privacy | Ad Info | Home Use of this site is subject to certain Terms & Conditions, Copyright © 1996-2000 EarthWeb Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement. To access the contents, click the chapter and section titles. App...
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- Fall '10
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