applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

Public key cryptography offers a far less violent

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Unformatted text preview: er, comes from [316].) One divided protocol is [1371]. The basic idea is that each voter breaks his vote into several shares. For example, if the vote were “yes” or “no, ” a 1 could indicate “yes” and a 0 could indicate “no”; the voter would then generate several numbers whose sum was either 0 or 1. These shares are sent to tabulating facilities, one to each, and are also encrypted and posted. Each center tallies the shares it receives (there are protocols to verify that the tally is correct) and the final vote is the sum of all the tallies. There are also protocols to ensure that each voter’s shares add up to 0 or 1. Another protocol, by David Chaum [322], ensures that voters who attempt to disrupt the election can be traced. However, the election must then be restarted without the interfering voter; this approach is not practical for large-scale elections. Another, more complex, voting protocol that solves some of these problems can be found in [770, 771]. There is even a voting protocol that uses multiple-key ciphers [219]. Yet another voting protocol, which claims to be practical for large-scale elections, is in [585]. And [347] allows voters to abstain. Voting protocols work, but they make it easier to buy and sell votes. The incentives become considerably stronger as the buyer can be sure that the seller votes as promised. Some protocols are designed to be receipt-free, so that it is impossible for a voter to prove to someone else that he voted in a certain way [117, 1170, 1372]. 6.2 Secure Multiparty Computation Secure multiparty computation is a protocol in which a group of people can get together and compute any function of many variables in a special way. Each participant in the group provides one or more variables. The result of the function is known to everyone in the group, but no one learns anything about the inputs of any other members other than what is obvious from the output of the function. Here are some examples: Protocol #1 How can a group of p...
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