applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

She then computes j hm ha b13 mod n and sends a

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Unformatted text preview: All rights reserved. Reproduction whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of EarthWeb is prohibited. Read EarthWeb's privacy statement. To access the contents, click the chapter and section titles. Applied Cryptography, Second Edition: Protocols, Algorthms, and Source Code in C (cloth) Go! Keyword Brief Full Advanced Search Search Tips (Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Author(s): Bruce Schneier ISBN: 0471128457 Publication Date: 01/01/96 Search this book: Go! Previous Table of Contents Next ----------- Sending multiple bits via this method involves making r either a quadratic residue or a quadratic nonresidue modulo a variety of parameters. See [1468,1469] for details. This scheme can be easily extended to send multiple subliminal bits per signature. If Alice and Bob agree on two random primes, P and Q, Alice can send two bits by choosing a random k such that r is either a quadratic residue mod P or a quadratic nonresidue mod P, and either a quadratic residue mod Q or a quadratic nonresidue mod Q. A random value of k has a 25 percent chance of producing an r of the correct form. Here’s how Mallory, an unscrupulous implementer of DSA,can have the algorithm leak 10 bits of Alice’s private key every time she signs a document. (1) Mallory puts his implementation of DSA in a tamperproof VLSI chip, so that no one can examine its inner workings. He creates a 14-bit subliminal channel in his implementation of DSA. That is, he chooses 14 random primes, and has the chip choose a value of k such that r is either a quadratic residue or a quadratic nonresidue modulo each of those 14 primes, depending on the subliminal message. (2) Mallory distributes the chips to Alice, Bob, and everyone else who wants them. (3) Alice signs a message normally, using her 160-bit private key, x. (4) The chip randomly chooses a 10-bit block of x: the first 10 bits, the second 10 bits, and so on. Since there are 16 possible 10-bit blocks, a 4-bit number can identify which block it is. This 4-bit identifier, plus the 10 bits of the key, is the 14-...
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