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Brief Full Advanced Search Search Tips (Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Author(s): Bruce Schneier ISBN: 0471128457 Publication Date: 01/01/96 Search this book:
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----------- Sending multiple bits via this method involves making r either a quadratic residue or a quadratic nonresidue modulo a variety of parameters. See [1468,1469] for details. This scheme can be easily extended to send multiple subliminal bits per signature. If Alice and Bob agree on two random primes, P and Q, Alice can send two bits by choosing a random k such that r is either a quadratic residue mod P or a quadratic nonresidue mod P, and either a quadratic residue mod Q or a quadratic nonresidue mod Q. A random value of k has a 25 percent chance of producing an r of the correct form. Here’s how Mallory, an unscrupulous implementer of DSA,can have the algorithm leak 10 bits of Alice’s private key every time she signs a document. (1) Mallory puts his implementation of DSA in a tamperproof VLSI chip, so that no one can examine its inner workings. He creates a 14-bit subliminal channel in his implementation of DSA. That is, he chooses 14 random primes, and has the chip choose a value of k such that r is either a quadratic residue or a quadratic nonresidue modulo each of those 14 primes, depending on the subliminal message. (2) Mallory distributes the chips to Alice, Bob, and everyone else who wants them. (3) Alice signs a message normally, using her 160-bit private key, x. (4) The chip randomly chooses a 10-bit block of x: the first 10 bits, the second 10 bits, and so on. Since there are 16 possible 10-bit blocks, a 4-bit number can identify which block it is. This 4-bit identifier, plus the 10 bits of the key, is the 14-...
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