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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

That is if the encryption keys for each round are k1

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Unformatted text preview: de in C (cloth) Go! Keyword Brief Full Advanced Search Search Tips (Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Author(s): Bruce Schneier ISBN: 0471128457 Publication Date: 01/01/96 Search this book: Go! Previous Table of Contents Next ----------- The S-Box Substitution After the compressed key is XORed with the expanded block, the 48-bit result moves to a substitution operation. The substitutions are performed by eight substitution boxes, or S-boxes. Each S-box has a 6-bit input and a 4-bit output, and there are eight different S-boxes. (The total memory requirement for the eight DES S-boxes is 256 bytes.) The 48 bits are divided into eight 6-bit sub-blocks. Each separate block is operated on by a separate S-box: The first block is operated on by S-box 1, the second block is operated on by S-box 2, and so on. See Figure 12.4. Each S-box is a table of 4 rows and 16 columns. Each entry in the box is a 4-bit number. The 6 input bits of the S-box specify under which row and column number to look for the output. Table 12.6 shows all eight S-boxes. The input bits specify an entry in the S-box in a very particular manner. Consider an S-box input of 6 bits, labeled b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 and b6. Bits b1 and b6 are combined to form a 2-bit number, from 0 to 3, which corresponds to a row in the table. The middle 4 bits, b2 through b5 are combined to form a 4-bit number, from 0 to 15, which corresponds to a column in the table. For example, assume that the input to the sixth S-box (i.e., bits 31 through 36 of the XOR function) is 110011. The first and last bits combine to form 11, which corresponds to row 3 of the sixth S-box. The middle 4 bits combine to form 1001, which corresponds to the column 9 of the same S-box. The entry under row 3, column 9 of S-box 6 is 14. (Remember to count rows and columns from 0 and not from 1.) The value 1110 is substituted for 110011. Figure 12.3 Expansion permutation. Table 12.5 Expansion Permutation 32, 8, 16, 24, 1, 9, 17, 25, 2, 10, 18, 26, 3, 11, 19, 27, 4, 12, 20, 28, 5, 13, 21, 29, 4, 12, 20, 28, 5, 13, 21, 29, 6, 14, 22, 30, 7, 15, 23, 31, 8, 16, 24, 32, 9, 17, 25, 1 It is, of course, far easier to implem...
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