Unformatted text preview: iece of graph paper of identical width and then reading the plaintext off horizontally. Cryptanalysis of these ciphers is discussed in [587,1475]. Since the letters of the ciphertext are the same as those of the plaintext, a frequency analysis on the ciphertext would reveal that each letter has approximately the same likelihood as in English. This gives a very good clue to a cryptanalyst, who can then use a variety of techniques to determine the right ordering of the letters to obtain the plaintext. Putting the ciphertext through a second transposition cipher greatly enhances security. There are even more complicated transposition ciphers, but computers can break almost all of them. The German ADFGVX cipher, used during World War I, is a transposition cipher combined with a simple substitution. It was a very complex algorithm for its day but was broken by Georges Painvin, a French cryptanalyst [794]. Although many modern algorithms use transposition, it is troublesome because it requires a lot of memory and sometimes requires messages to be only certain lengths. Substitution is far more common. Rotor Machines
In the 1920s, various mechanical encryption devices were invented to automate the process of encryption. Most were based on the concept of a rotor, a mechanical wheel wired to perform a general substitution. A rotor machine has a keyboard and a series of rotors, and implements a version of the Vigenère cipher. Each rotor is an arbitrary permutation of the alphabet, has 26 positions, and performs a simple substitution. For example, a rotor might be wired to substitute “F” for “A,” “U” for “B,” “L” for “C,” and so on. And the output pins of one rotor are connected to the input pins of the next. Figure 1.4 Columnar transposition cipher. For example, in a 4rotor machine the first rotor might substitute “F” for “A,” the second might substitute “Y” for “F,” the third might substitute “E” for “Y,” and the fourth might substitute “C” for “E”; “C” would be the output ciphertext. Then some of the rotors shift, so next time the substitutions will be different. It is the combination of several...
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 Fall '10
 ALIULGER
 Cryptography, Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, EarthWeb, Search Search Tips

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