Unformatted text preview: x455a14ed) GG (a, b, c, d, M13, 5, 0xa9e3e905) GG (d, a, b, c, M2, 9, 0xfcefa3f8) GG (c, d, a, b, M7, 14, 0x676f02d9) GG (b, c, d, a, M12, 20, 0x8d2a4c8a) Round 3: HH (a, b, c, d, M5, 4, 0xfffa3942) HH (d, a, b, c, M8, 11, 0x8771f681) HH (c, d, a, b, M11, 16, 0x6d9d6122) HH (b, c, d, a, M14, 23, 0xfde5380c) HH (a, b, c, d, M1, 4, 0xa4beea44) HH (d, a, b, c, M4, 11, 0x4bdecfa9) HH (c, d, a, b, M7, 16, 0xf6bb4b60) HH (b, c, d, a, M10, 23, 0xbebfbc70) HH (a, b, c, d, M13, 4, 0x289b7ec6) HH (d, a, b, c, M0, 11, 0xeaa127fa) HH (c, d, a, b, M3, 16, 0xd4ef3085) HH (b, c, d, a, M6, 23, 0x04881d05) HH (a, b, c, d, M9, 4, 0xd9d4d039) HH (d, a, b, c, M12, 11, 0xe6db99e5) HH (c, d, a, b, M15, 16, 0x1fa27cf8) HH (b, c, d, a, M2, 23, 0xc4ac5665) Round 4: II (a, b, c, d, M0, 6, 0xf4292244) II (d, a, b, c, M7, 10, 0x432aff97) II (c, d, a, b, M14, 15, 0xab9423a7) II (b, c, d, a, M5, 21, 0xfc93a039) II (a, b, c, d, M12, 6, 0x655b59c3) II (d, a, b, c, M3, 10, 0x8f0ccc92) II (c, d, a, b, M10, 15, 0xffeff47d) II (b, c, d, a, M1, 21, 0x85845dd1) II (a, b, c, d, M8, 6, 0x6fa87e4f) II (d, a, b, c, M15, 10, 0xfe2ce6e0) II (c, d, a, b, M6, 15, 0xa3014314) II (b, c, d, a, M13, 21, 0x4e0811a1) II (a, b, c, d, M4, 6, 0xf7537e82) II (d, a, b, c, M11, 10, 0xbd3af235) II (c, d, a, b, M2, 15, 0x2ad7d2bb) II (b, c, d, a, M9, 21, 0xeb86d391) Those constants, ti, were chosen as follows: In step i, ti is the integer part of 232*abs(sin(i)), where i is in radians. After all of this, a, b, c, and d are added to A, B, C, D, respectively, and the algorithm continues with the next block of data. The final output is the concatenation of A, B, C, and D. Security of MD5
Ron Rivest outlined the improvements of MD5 over MD4 [1322]: 1. A fourth round has been added. 2. Each step now has a unique additive constant. 3. The function G in round 2 was changed from ((X¥ Y ) ¦ (X¥ Z ) ¦ (Y¥ Z )) to ((X¥ Z ) ¦ (Y¥ ¬ Z )) to make G less symmetric. 4. Each step now adds in the result of the previous step. This promotes a faster...
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 Fall '10
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 Cryptography, Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, EarthWeb, Search Search Tips

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