applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

The point here is to fingerprint the pre image to

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: e x. Taking a watch apart is a good example of a trap-door one-way function. It is easy to disassemble a watch into hundreds of minuscule pieces. It is very difficult to put those tiny pieces back together into a working watch. However, with the secret information—the assembly instructions of the watch—it is much easier to put the watch back together. 2.4 One-Way Hash Functions A one-way hash function has many names: compression function, contraction function, message digest, fingerprint, cryptographic checksum, message integrity check (MIC), and manipulation detection code (MDC). Whatever you call it, it is central to modern cryptography. One-way hash functions are another building block for many protocols. Hash functions have been used in computer science for a long time. A hash function is a function, mathematical or otherwise, that takes a variable-length input string (called a pre-image) and converts it to a fixed-length (generally smaller) output string (called a hash value). A simple hash function would be a function that takes pre-image and returns a byte consisting of the XOR of all the input bytes. The point here is to fingerprint the pre-image: to produce a value that indicates whether a candidate pre-image is likely to be the same as the real pre-image. Because hash functions are typically many-to-one, we cannot use them to determine with certainty that the two strings are equal, but we can use them to get a reasonable assurance of accuracy. A one-way hash function is a hash function that works in one direction: It is easy to compute a hash value from pre-image, but it is hard to generate a pre-image that hashes to a particular value. The hash function previously mentioned is not one-way: Given a particular byte value, it is trivial to generate a string of bytes whose XOR is that value. You can’t do that with a one-way hash function. A good one-way hash function is also collision-free: It is hard to generate two pre-images with the same hash value. The hash function is public; there’s no secrecy to the process. The secur...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course MATH CS 301 taught by Professor Aliulger during the Fall '10 term at Koç University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online