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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

The repetitive nature of the algorithm makes it ideal

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Unformatted text preview: e DES-based criteria that all authentication devices must meet [469]. The ISO first voted to approve DES—they called it the DEA-1—as an international standard, then decided not to play a role in the standardization of cryptography. However, in 1987 the International Wholesale Financial Standards group of ISO used DES in an international authentication standard [758] and for key management [761]. DES is also specified in an Australian banking standard [1497]. Validation and Certification of DES Equipment As part of the DES standard, NIST validates implementations of DES. This validation confirms that the implementation follows the standard. Until 1994, NIST only validated hardware and firmware implementations—until then the standard prohibited software implementations. As of March 1995, 73 different implementations had been validated. NIST also developed a program to certify that authentication equipment conformed to ANSI X9.9 and FIPS 113. As of March, 1995, 33 products had been validated. The Department of the Treasury has an additional certification procedure. NIST also has a program to confirm that equipment conforms to ANSI X9.17 for wholesale key management [1151]; four products have been validated as of March, 1995. 1987 The terms of the DES standard stipulate that it be reviewed every five years. In 1983 DES was recertified without a hitch. In the March 6, 1987 Federal Register, NBS published a request for comments on the second five-year review. NBS offered three alternatives for consideration [1480,1481]: reaffirm the standard for another five years, withdraw the standard, or revise the applicability of the standard. NBS and NSA reviewed the standard. NSA was more involved this time. Because of an executive directive called NSDD-145, signed by Reagan, NSA had veto power over the NBS in matters of cryptography. Initially, the NSA announced that it would not recertify the standard. The problem was not that DES had been broken, or even that it was suspected of h...
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