Unformatted text preview: roving her identity to Mallory, Mallory can simultaneously prove to Bob that he is Alice. The Mafia Fraud
When discussing his zero-knowledge identification protocol, Adi Shamir  said: “I could go to a Mafia-owned store a million successive times and they will still not be able to misrepresent themselves as me.” Here’s how the Mafia can. Alice is eating at Bob’s Diner, a Mafia-owned restaurant. Carol is shopping at Dave’s Emporium, an expensive jewelry store. Bob and Carol are both members of the Mafia and are communicating by a secret radio link. Alice and Dave are unaware of the fraud. At the end of Alice’s meal, when she is ready to pay and prove her identity to Bob, Bob signals Carol that the fraud is ready to begin. Carol chooses some expensive diamonds and gets ready to prove her identity to Dave. Now, as Alice proves her identity to Bob, Bob radios Carol and Carol performs the same protocol with Dave. When Dave asks a question in the protocol, Carol radios the question back to Bob, and Bob asks it of Alice. When Alice answers, Bob radios the correct answer to Carol. Actually, Alice is just proving her identity to Dave, and Bob and Carol are simply sitting in the middle of the protocol passing messages back and forth. When the protocol finishes, Alice has proved herself to Dave and has purchased some expensive diamonds (which Carol disappears with). The Terrorist Fraud
If Alice is willing to collaborate with Carol, they can also defraud Dave. In this protocol, Carol is a well-known terrorist. Alice is helping her enter the country. Dave is the immigration officer. Alice and Carol are connected by a secret radio link. When Dave asks Carol questions as part of the zero-knowledge protocol, Carol radios them back to Alice, who answers them herself. Carol recites these answers to Dave. In reality, Alice is proving her identity to Dave, with Carol acting as a communications path. When the protocol finishes, Dave thinks that Carol is Alice and lets her into the country. Three days later, Caro...
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- Fall '10
- Cryptography, Bruce Schneier, Applied Cryptography, EarthWeb, Search Search Tips