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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

# This in effect uses the one way function as a block

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Unformatted text preview: S-Box Design The strength of various Feistel networks—and specifically their resistance to differential and linear cryptanalysis—is tied directly to their S-boxes. This has prompted a spate of research on what constitutes a good S-box. An S-box is simply a substitution: a mapping of m-bit inputs to n-bit outputs. Previously I talked about one large lookup table of 64-bit inputs to 64-bit outputs; that would be a 64*64-bit S-box. An S-box with an m-bit input and an n-bit output is called a m*n-bit S-box. S-boxes are generally the only nonlinear step in an algorithm; they are what give a block cipher its security. In general, the bigger they are, the better. DES has eight different 6*4-bit S-boxes. Khufu and Khafre have a single 8*32-bit S-box, LoKI has a 12*8-bit S-box, and both Blowfish and CAST have 8*32-bit S-boxes. In IDEA the modular multiplication step is effectively the S-box; it is a 16*16-bit S-box. The larger this S-box, the harder it is to find useful statistics to attack using either differential or linear cryptanalysis [653,729,1626]. Also, while random S-boxes are usually not optimal to protect against differential and linear attacks, it is easier to find strong S-boxes if the S-boxes are larger. Most random S-boxes are nonlinear, nondegenerate, and have strong resistance to linear cryptanalysis—and the fraction that does not goes down rapidly as the number of input bits decreases [1185,1186,1187]. The size of m is more important than the size of n. Increasing the size of n reduces the effectiveness of differential cryptanalysis, but greatly increases the effectiveness of linear cryptanalysis. In fact, if n d 2m – m, then there is definitely a linear relation of the input and output bits of the S-box. And if n d 2m, then there is a linear relation of only the output bits [164]. Much of this work involves the study of Boolean functions [94,1098,1262,1408]. In order to be secure, the Boolean functions used in S-boxes must satisfy specific conditions. They should not be linear or affine, nor even close to linear or affine [9,1177,1178,1188]. There should be...
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