applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

# Threshold generator this generator tries to get

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Unformatted text preview: hind a correlation attack is to identify some correlation between the output of the generator and the output of one of its internal pieces. Then, by observing the output sequence, you can obtain information about that internal output. Using that information and other correlations, collect information about the other internal outputs until the entire generator is broken. Correlation attacks and variations such as fast correlation attacks—these offer a trade-off between computational complexity and effectiveness—have been successfully applied to a number of LFSR-based keystream generators [1451,278,1452,572,1636,1051,1090,350,633,1054,1089,995]. Some interesting new ideas along these lines are in [46,1641]. Other Attacks There are other general attacks against keystream generators. The linear consistency test attempts to identify some subset of the encryption key using matrix techniques [1638]. There is also the meet-in-the-middle consistency attack [39,41]. The linear syndrome algorithm relies on being able to write a fragment of the output sequence as a linear equation [1636,1637]. There is the best affine approximation attack [502] and the derived sequence attack [42]. The techniques of differential cryptanalysis have even been applied to stream ciphers [501], as has linear cryptanalysis [631]. 16.4 Stream Ciphers Using LFSRs The basic approach to designing a keystream generator using LFSRs is simple. First you take one or more LFSRs, generally of different lengths and with different feedback polynomials. (If the lengths are all relatively prime and the feedback polynomials are all primitive, the whole generator is maximal length.) The key is the initial state of the LFSRs. Every time you want a bit, shift the LFSRs once (this is sometimes called clocking). The output bit is a function, preferably a nonlinear function, of some of the bits of the LFSRs. This function is called the combining function, and the whole generator is called a combination generator. (If the output bit is a function of a single LFSR, the generator i...
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