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applied cryptography - protocols, algorithms, and source code in c

# You never use the same keystream bits twice since the

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Unformatted text preview: (see Section 19.2) [1363]. CRYPTO-LEGGO is insecure [301]. Joan Daemen has developed SubStream, Jam, and StepRightUp [402]; they are all too new to comment on. Many other algorithms are described in the literature, and even more are kept secret and incorporated into equipment. 17.8 System-Theoretic Approach to Stream-Cipher Design In practice, stream-cipher design is a lot like block-cipher design. It involves more mathematical theory, but in the end a cryptographer proposes a design and then tries to analyze it. According to Rainer Rueppel, there are four different approaches to the construction of stream ciphers [1360,1362]: — System-theoretic approach. Try to make sure that each design creates a difficult and unknown problem for the cryptanalyst, using a set of fundamental design principles and criteria. — Information-theoretic approach. Try to keep the cryptanalyst in the dark about the plaintext. No matter how much work the cryptanalyst invests, he will never get a unique solution. — Complexity-theoretic approach. Try to base the cryptosystem on, or make it equivalent to, some known and difficult problem such as factoring or taking discrete logarithms. — Randomized approach. Try to generate an unmanageably large problem by forcing the cryptanalyst to examine lots of useless data in his attempts at cryptanalysis. The approaches differ in their assumptions about the capabilities and opportunities of the cryptanalyst, the definition of cryptographic success, and the notion of security. Most of the research in this field is theoretical, but there are some good stream ciphers among the impractical ones. The system-theoretic approach was used in all the stream ciphers previously listed; it produces most of the stream ciphers that are practical enough to be used in the real world. A cryptographer designs keystream generators that have testable security properties—period, distribution of bit patterns, linear complexity, and so on—and not ciphers based on mathematical theory. The cryptographer also studies various cryptanalytic techniques a...
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