Ch-4-ChemicalReactions

Ch-4-ChemicalReactions - Chapter 4 Chemical Quantitiesand...

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Chemical  Quantities and  Aqueous  Reactions Chapter 4
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2 Reaction Stoichiometry The numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction is called stoichiometry The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction 2 C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25 O 2 ( g ) 16 CO 2 ( g ) + 18 H 2 O ( g ) 2 mol C 8 H 18 : 25 mol O 2 : 16 mol CO 2 : 18 mol H 2 O
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Mass  reactant Stoichiometric factor Moles reactant Moles  product Mass  product PLAN FOR STOICHIOMETRY  CALCULATIONS
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Example  –  Estimate the mass of CO 2  produced in 2004 by  the combustion of 3.4 x 10 15  g gasoline Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find:
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5 Limiting Reactant R eactants Products Limiting reactant = ___________ Excess reactant = ____________ 4 NO (g)  + 2O 2 (g)           4 NO (g) +  O 2 (g)
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6 Theoretical yield – the amount of product formed from the complete conversion of a given amount of reactant to product Determined from the limiting reactant calculation. Actual yield is always less than theoretical yield because of incomplete reactions, impure reactants, side reactions, etc In the laboratory, this is the amount of product that is formed in your beaker, after it is purified and dried. Percent yield indicates how much of the product is obtained from a reaction. % yield = actual yield theoretical yield × 100%
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7 Example : When 28.6 kg of C are allowed to react with 88.2 kg of TiO 2 in the reaction below, 42.8 kg of Ti are obtained. Find the Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield. (g) (s) (s) (s) CO 2 Ti C 2 TiO 2 + +
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8 kg TiO 2 kg C 2 2 TiO g 9.87 7 TiO mol 1 C g .01 12 C mol 1 mol C mol TiO 2 mol Ti mol Ti 2 TiO mol 1 Ti mol 1 C mol 2 Ti mol 1 } smallest amount is from limiting reactant g TiO 2 g C kg 1 g 1000 kg 1 g 1000 smallest mol Ti g Ti Ti mol 1 g 87 . 47 % Yield yield theor. yield act. yield % = kg Ti T.Y. g 000 1 kg 1 Example: When 28.6 kg of C are allowed to react with 88.2 kg of TiO 2 in the reaction below, 42.8 kg of Ti are obtained. Find the Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield. (g) (s) (s) (s) CO 2 Ti C 2 TiO 2 + +
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9
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10 Solutions Solutions — homogeneous mixtures resulting from the dissolution of solutes in a solvent . — may exist as a solid, liquid, or gas. Solute Solute — the dissolved substance; usually the minor component. Solvent Solvent — major component. Solutions Solutions Aqueous solutions Aqueous solutions – water is solvent
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11 Solution Concentration The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solution. Concentration = amount of solute
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Ch-4-ChemicalReactions - Chapter 4 Chemical Quantitiesand...

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