Ch-5-Gases - Chapt er 5 Gase s GaseousElementsand Compounds...

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Gase s Chapt er 5
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Gaseous Elements and  Compounds CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 , SO 2 , SO 3 , and ClO 2
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3 Properties of Gases Expand to completely fill their container Take the shape of their container Low density much less than solid or liquid state Compressible Mixtures of gases are always homogeneous
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4 The Pressure of a Gas Result of the constant movement of the gas molecules and their collisions with the surfaces around them The pressure of a gas depends on several factors number of gas particles in a given volume volume of the container average speed of the gas particles Area Force Pressure =
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5 Measuring Air Pressure Use a barometer Column of mercury supported by air pressure Force of the air on the surface of the mercury balanced by the pull of gravity on the column of mercury gravity
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Example  – A high-performance bicycle tire has a  pressure of 132 psi.  What is the pressure in mmHg?  Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find:
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8 Manometer for this sample, the gas has a larger pressure than the atmosphere, so (mm) levels Hg in difference (mmHg) Pressure (mmHg) Pressure Pressure Pressure Pressure atmosphere gas h atmosphere gas + = + =
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9 Boyle’s Law Pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume constant T and amount of gas graph P vs V is curve graph P vs 1/ V is straight line as P increases, V decreases by the same factor P x V = constant 1 1 2 2 Robert Boyle (1627- 1691).
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Example   – A cylinder with a movable piston has a volume  of 7.25 L at 4.52 atm.  What is the volume at 1.21 atm? Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find:
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11 Practice – A balloon is put in a bell jar and the  pressure is reduced from 782 torr to 0.500 atm.  If  the volume of the balloon is now 2780 mL, what was  it originally?
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12 Charles’ Law Volume is directly proportional to temperature constant P and amount of gas graph of V vs T is straight line T increases, V also increases Kelvin T = Celsius T + 273 V = constant x T if T measured in Kelvin 2 2 1 1 T V T V = Jacques Charles (1746-1823).
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Example  – A gas has a volume of 2.57 L at 0.00°C.   What was the temperature at 2.80 L? Check: Solution: Concept Plan: Relationships: Given: Find:
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14 Practice – The temperature inside a balloon is  raised from 25.0°C to 250.0°C.  If the volume of  cold air was 10.0 L, what is the volume of hot air? 
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15 Avogadro’s Law Volume directly proportional to the number of gas molecules more gas molecules = larger volume Count number of gas molecules by moles Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules 2 2 1 1 n V n V =
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Example  – A 0.225 mol sample of He has a volume of 
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2010 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Geiger during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Ch-5-Gases - Chapt er 5 Gase s GaseousElementsand Compounds...

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