Ch-10-Chemical-Bonding II

Ch-10-Chemical-Bonding II - Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding I I...

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Chemical Bonding II Chapter 10
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2 Structure Determines Properties! The structure includes many factors, including: the skeletal arrangement of the atoms the kind of bonding between the atoms ionic, polar covalent, or covalent the shape of the molecule Bonding theory should allow you to predict the shapes of molecules
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3 VSEPR Theory Electron groups around the central atom will be most stable when they are as far apart as possible – we call this valence shell electron pair repulsion theory since electrons are negatively charged, they should be most stable when they are separated as much as possible The resulting geometric arrangement will allow us to predict the shapes and bond angles in the molecule
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4
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5 Electron Groups The Lewis structure predicts the arrangement of valence electrons around the central atom(s) Each lone pair of electrons constitutes one electron group on a central atom Each bond constitutes one electron group on a central atom regardless of whether it is single, double, or triple O N O •• •• •• •• there are 3 electron groups on N 1 lone pair 1 single bond 1 double bond
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6 Linear Geometry When there are 2 electron groups around the central atom, they will occupy positions opposite each other around the central atom This results in the molecule taking a linear geometry The bond angle is 180° Cl Be Cl O C O
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7 Trigonal Geometry When there are 3 electron groups around the central atom, they will occupy positions in the shape of a triangle around the central atom This results in the molecule taking a trigonal planar geometry The bond angle is 120° F F B F
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8 Trigonal Geometry F F B F
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9 Tetrahedral Geometry when there are 4 electron groups around the central atom, they will occupy positions in the shape of a tetrahedron around the central atom this results in the molecule taking a tetrahedral geometry the bond angle is 109.5° F F C F F
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10 Tetrahedral Geometry
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11 Methane
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12 Trigonal Bipyramid
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13 Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry P Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
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14 Octahedral Geometry
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15 Octahedral Geometry S F F F F F F •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
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16 The Effect of Lone Pairs Lone pair groups “occupy more space” on the central atom because their electron density is exclusively on the central atom rather than shared like bonding electron groups Relative sizes of repulsive force interactions is: Lone Pair – Lone Pair > Lone Pair – Bonding Pair > Bonding Pair – Bonding Pair This effects the bond angles, making them smaller than expected
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2010 for the course CHM 2045 taught by Professor Geiger during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Ch-10-Chemical-Bonding II - Chapter 10 Chemical Bonding I I...

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