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Tenderness...Finding%20Genes%20that%20Fit - Tenderness...

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Unformatted text preview: Tenderness... Finding Genes that Fit By Susan Willmnn, rti-l Director QfBrcrd lmpmr'cmmt umerous beef industry studies over the past decade have shown that the typical beef consumer prefers a tender, iuicy and flavorful beef ea ting experience. The most recent data that compared the ten demess of specific breeds was the Meat Animal Res ‘arch Center (MARC) Germpl'asm Report 22. Unforhmately. data within this report listed the Gelbvieh— in tlucnced cattle as the least tender of the. seven breeds represented. While the differences between the continental breeds Were not statistically significant. the difference between the. least tender ('Gelbviehl and most tender (Angus) was significant at a net difference of 1.1 pounds of Warner-Brawler Shear Force tWBSF). Since. there is not much other current tem‘lnrness data available comparing breeds this report served as wakeup call to American C—lelbvieh Association {AGA} members and Gelbvieh breeders. At the April 2005 AGA Board meeting the decision was made to test the top 25 A.i. Gelbvieh sires for the available DNA Tenderness markers. While several technologies a re. available to evaluate tendcmess, at present the DNA markers represent a cost-effective and potentially faster means of evaluating the genetics currently being used and effecting change for future generations compared to progeny carcass testing as a means of sit-c evaluation, The Board’s decision was made based on the. desire for this information to be made available to all producers and be used as a part of bull selection criteria. This initial testing was performed using; Bovigen's DNA Tenderness panel, as they offered the ability to test for two different genes with a total of three markers for this trait. 0n the page 77, you will find the results of the. testing for the Top 25 sires. This data will be published on the Gelbvieh website and additional Al. sites will be added on a yearly basis. The ALTA membership set itself apart from every other breed in the United States by possessing this data on the top sires. Additionally on the website we. will have a section for DNA results for other animals within the breed that have been tested for the various markers. The ultimate goal is to have. this information available on as many animals within our breed as possible providing, Alf-IA members, as well as other producers using Gelbvieh genetics, a powerful tool to impact the tenderness of that ultimate end product—a Gelbvieh-influenced steak on a plate. Feature- .ln this article you will find a DNA 'l‘endorness Marker Reference Guide. included in this information an explanatirm of the individual genes, their effects on tenderness and the. frequencies of the genes based on. tested animals to date. Part of our challenge in possessing this information is to not only be able to useit in making breeding- decisions. but to be able to explain its use. to seedstock and commercial customers alike. While thjs reclintilt_ig_v is not net-v, understanding it possesses a somewhat steep learning curve and overall use among beef producers is still at a relatively low level. To increase the. level of understanding, or at least minimize the confusion. it is recommeru‘led that results are advertised with a tag to their marker title. in the. sample layout below, the number in parentheses corresponds to the marker value on the GeneSTAR results report and the letters correspond to the actual genotype. Oval" Grade can in order to make improvement in tenderness within our breed and the conunercial cattle influenced by Golbvioh . genetics. breeding decisions must be. made that improve the mo generation's gene frequencies over what is currently present. The best way is to male bulls with these. markers to our families that might lack them or using cow families that possess the markers to improve. sire lines with lower frequencies. it does not mean selecting]r sires based solely on these values. An animal that possesses the Tenderness genes at the expense of growth, maternal or fertility traits will ultimately do more to hurt genetic. progress than help it. We are fortunate that within these Top 25 sires we. see all of these genes in some form (See Frequencies of DNA Markers on page 75). it will be relatively simple to increase the frequency of both the Calpasta tin (CAST) and C alpain 475! (T3) ma rkors, as we have a good foundation to work with. The C'alpain 3th (CAL?) marker presents more of a challenge but can be. increased as well over time. We have also included the results for the. Quality Grade markers. These markers will be discussed ' in Part 2 of this series in the April Gclbz'icli World. Bottom line is the total net increased Tenclemess that can be obtained by puttingI some selection pressure on these markers is over two pounds. The difference between the least tender (Gelbvieh) and most tender (Aliens) influenced cattle in the MARC study was just 1.]. pounds ofWBSF. We can find the genes that fit in almost any tart-,‘edin‘cr scenario and in a fei-v generations greatly improve the ranking of Cell.“tub-influenced cattle. in respect to tenderness. DNA Tenderness Marker Reference Guide As part of the Productivity Conunittee meeting, at the zone ALTA Convention in Denver, the foilmvinp, background infomaation was presented on DN A Marker Technology as it exists currently. Understanding the Tenderness DNA Markers During the post-mortem aging process enzymes work to impact tench-"mess within the carcass. DNA Markers have been identitiet'l for two of these enzymes: Calpain and t'alpastatin. Calpain is an enzt me, which i\'I.li'l-‘:i to break down muscle fibers d urng the aging. process. The presence Lit L‘atpaslatin works to block the effect of the Calpain enzyme. So basicaih the desired animal has the genetic code to produce C'alp'ain and low levels of Calpastatin. This is what is commonly referred to as the "favorable" forms of both of these genes. Tabte A. STARS FORM 2 Favorable 1 _ Intermediate 0 UN-Favorahte CAST CAer CALP “5‘ (T3) The favorablt': forms of these genes are represented in Table .~\. included in this table are both the "F'l'.-\b'." values that are represented in the CeneSTAR results. as well as the actual genotypes. Ev presenting the genotvpes as well as a number \.llttt:'. breeders that have reenlts from teenitv's Calpain test and other companies can compare. results to the L'alpain tests reported he Bovigen. . Calpastatin. abbreviated C.—\ST. was the initial gene marker identified to effect tenderness and was first offered as a DNA Mai-Lei: test in lanuat’i‘ 1003. As illustrated in Table .-\ thavigen reports this favorable form as a '2. the unfavorable form (higher levels of Calpasta tin l a:- a 0. table B reports the effects of these forms ofCalpast.-1ti.n based on Wat'ner—liratzler Shear Force ti‘i'FlSF'i tests. Table B. Calpastatin Effects Intermediate UN-Favorabte Form 2 (AA) 1 (GA) otec) -0.8‘l -0.42 0.00 W Increased Tenderness in Peunds of WEISF Genetic Randi-ans Genetafii L' 4 Favorable Form Calpain is the second DNA marker released to evaluate tenderness. Much of the research on Calpain has been produced Frequencies of DNA'Markers Bovigen provided the statistics shown at right, on Gelbvieh and Balancet" cattle tested to date. These statistics represent appl‘ta\im.-1tel_\' 500 plus Gelbvieh tests and 150 plus Batancer tests. While it gives us a starting point, what may be the trite frequencies at these markers in the total Celbvieh and Balaneer population has yet in be determined. Only testing of a significantly greater percentage of uttt‘ genetic base will paint the true picture of Gelbvieh Balancer British Continental Brahman Infl. i‘lit‘be" frequencies. 2(AA) at'aleat_—\1'iitn.=il lei-search Center tMAltC'i and as such this information is in the public domain. met-uriner DNA tests can be developed based on this research by any commercial con‘tpanv. tin-eoine‘ research has it'lentif'ied several SN Pa: for Calpain. The best “at to think of these SNl’s is as pointers to the actual gene. genetic road signs pointing to the ultimate destination. For emmpte. in Kansas Cit_v you would see a Sign on [-70 indicating; Drawer as a destination in tail miles heading west. A similar sign in Salt l ake City would put ton in Denver in 533 miles heading east. Both starting points (SNT’sJ get you in the same destination tL'alpaini. but each trip tattes a different amountof time (rz-t't‘ectl. In the case ofCalPain there are lth GNPS that have been shown to produce consistent correlations to tenderness as measured by i'\-‘.-irner-Bratzler Shear Farrow The first FNP. 311), was brought to the market late in 2003. More recenth a new SNt‘, 475i. has also been released (marketed b_v Bovieen as 'i'3l. White the combination of these two SNI‘s has an increased effect on 'i‘ent'lerness than either SNt‘ independently. the combined effect on Tenderness is not twice the value. Because of this fact we' must understand the power of the Cu'ambinations rather than simply adding them together. Bel-'nv in Table C are the results that were reported by MARC on these two SNl’s in eotnbinatit‘m l li'liftt‘ at at“ l. .-liiim. St‘i. 53:300.?»It'it'ttil'. .~\s discussed in it'a'i‘ne \'ander\vert's editorial, the addition of this new SNI" is one. more reason whv it is important to understand the genotyes. combinations and their effects. Table C. 2 (co) 1(CG) ores) use) area) 0(GG) Q.I:i!.'.".\l.if\'C it‘tzfi‘i'eral. Jill“ Additional research has shown that Calpain and Catpastatin are independent of each other and their effects on 'l"enderness CALP 4751 1(CT) CAST 1(GA) OtAA) CliLPm rice) was) ates) 2(cci our) dam-er: Retrieve animals tested threaten ii i ember- flirt-11 Top 25 Gelbvieh A.i. Sires DNA Marker Results Rani. Reglstered Name Dualill' Grade Tenderness T65 CAEST Calp'ilfi L‘air- 4751 Are amid-into. an we can l'rl'ruiirit the cited nt 3 genotype In 5“: Freedom “SF ET t‘lillnlmllng the twin ettects together. Hr'lil"l"i‘e"r. i‘t‘fl'riliéie in turn! we arr.- lnnking al ihrcr' [11.11'Lt'l'5 for two different gum-g XXB Drew 565K tilt-re JI‘C' 2.- per-siinlc- c-irinbinati-imi and W0 Find that similrn' star trltais (see 4 star mnrnpin lwlufm J do not .‘rli pr'ndnru and L“final ol'l‘oct. RTC Alias TTZG Same Number of Stars‘ Different Effect EGL New m ET JFil Pld Free Agenl1'25J3 individual Marker Effects CAST CALPNIW 0 lbs -1.23 lbs 4.23 lbs n -.31 lbs -.68 lbs E II Changing the Next Generation In order in inCI'Qn-zc the Ti'.‘|‘l(it"l‘i'lc"r-E¥ ut' the hoof produced Tenderness Genotypes CAST CALle CALPW ELK CK Bronco MIG KCF Bennett Landmark 577 0 (Ge) 2(CC) KlT TanascoJi‘B ET 0(GG) 2(TT) 1(CG} 1(CT) zlccl SPLIFI Beretta 7036 2(AA) 2(AA) JCGH Bar GT Mar-3n One 5.1 L FHG WFG Flying H Erclusive FiUP Rupple Gigolo new ET in" L .c-llu It'IT-ilTilllL‘lTi:l3Li Lntiieu we need in inll'l‘t'u'ltit' ihr.‘ . an Red Margit-75 pral'clL-llt.l;.:r: or cattle ihatcnl'rl' these marker: in the inl‘nl‘rllwlr- form [2.4). [ii-rift}; a tr'l-liiitionni F'l'rnnntt eqnarl" FHG Flving H Extra 1505 iiilIN'il'Jius the nut-fume; 0i. vnl'inns lwlnnnr-l'l l'ilsltings. - EGL Guido K05? ET i sing L -\Erl arc-nut} pen“ for example: JRIEWa Expasm 285m ET E'lronding d CAST 2 HA) lmli to n CAST '1 [AC-3| cnll' MRCONew Direction 905 produce-5: the full-.‘Jll'irlg pull-J,an typos SPUH Kings Fiansnme 901.5 Cow ‘ ' KCF Bennett Ideal (3132 A G S MLLC M‘i. Encore A = "I I Progeny 50 0 AA (CAST 2) JEOB 22m ET R .. E A 50% AG (CAST 1) VFIT Lazy TV Beelhoven REFS r JBOB Carolina Fortune 255-! J ET breeding: Li (.AbT 'l lALJi bull tn a LAN 1 ML.) um HAG Mr. Ema wonderlufET produce; tin1 following progeny i} pea JBOB Carolina CPR COW ‘ix'.rr:i: ru’cr‘s in rrrrrrri'ur ‘3' .tnirl': mnnimi in NW. A G A Progeny: 25% AA (CASTZ) ReportLegend G 50% AG (CAST1) Quality Grade Tenderness °fu 25' GMCAST 0) TGS M2 CAST Calp315 oalprrsi “10 positive- I‘It'\\'$ i2: liml mnnl uf the gene: needed in "Ix—U) inlprm‘e tenderness in the tile-lbvivh ITI'C'C't'l .1 re pix-Aunt in the prlerlniinn. increased Writing ll‘ iil locate even more animal?- tilnt inn r- lhr- p‘r-nr‘: nmgcssary tn effect changn in the [ml-ml. D_\'.—\ tus-‘fing is juat Lino pint-o or {he I‘ll-setting Flrszt line at llsiigg ‘ k t§errclncldlll1e inf |Ilrstmtg . as: ., “l l.‘ - ., .1 . _ . L, .- .‘- , 0,1, vaue—correspan 510 themar er arrespon s oncrra 15m) r5120. dumnn PU???“ H 1: h md Plum up?" ll‘m‘“ “ “h n 1.1L“ m” value provided on GeneSTAFirssults Marker,see Table A. lnon<rlroii |."\' Ilzl’l J< new] in In" t'l.ll"l‘.-lLiL'l'L'd when lnrlklng {epm HPindmmsaResms Pending! I‘l't‘P'liin}: tit-cieiirna. I ...
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