Chap_3 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water, most biologically related molecules contain carbon.---Organic molecules are molecules containing carbon. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules Carbon has a valence of 4. Can bind to 2, 3, or 4 other atoms. Another factor which leads to the versatility of organic molecules is the attachment of functional groups (see table 3-1)---Functional groups are small characteristic groups of atoms which are frequently bonded to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules. Table 3.1 Functional groups: Have specific chemical and physical properties. Are regions of organic molecules which are frequently chemically reactive. Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another. Can determine the chemical properties of the organic molecule in which they are located. 1) Hydrogen Group (-H)---Hydrogen group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Is either a polar group or a non-polar group depending on the atom to which the hydrogen is attached.-Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions 2) Hydroxyl Group (-OH)---Hydroxyl group is a functional group of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Is a polar group-Involved in condensation (dehydration) and hydrolysis reactions O H H O HO OH HO OH OH HO Dehydration synthesis Page 39 3)Carboxyl Group (-COOH)---Carboxyl group is a functional group in which a carbon atom is double bonded to an oxygen atom (like a carbonyl) and is also single bonded to the oxygen atom of a hydroxyl group.-Since this group can donate a proton, it is an acid-Involved in peptide bonds 4)Amino Groups (-NH2)---Amino groups are functional groups in which two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom which is bonded to a carbon atom (of the carbon skeleton).-Acts as a weak base (similar to ammonia)-Involved in peptide bonds amino acid amino group amino group carboxyl group amino acid carboxyl group 5)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )---Phosphate group is a functional group which is the dissociated form of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) 5)Phosphate Groups (-PO 4 )-Acts as an acid because of the ability to donate protons.-Links nucleotides-Important in cellular energy storage and energy transfer. Example: ATP 6) Methyl Groups (-CH 3 )---Methyl group is a functional group which consists of three hydrogen atoms bonded to a carbon atom. -Is a non-polar group.-Makes the molecule more hydrophobic SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC MOLECULES: A MODULAR APPROACH Biological molecules are often put together in subunits , or modules, called monomers .---the simple molecules condensed into more complex ones---monomers into polymers---Polymer are chains of similar building blocks or monomers....
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chap_3 - Chapter 3 Biological Molecules Aside from water,...

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