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Chapter 10. Reactors - 10 Reactors 10.1 10.2 10.3 Reactors...

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10 Reactors Richard F. Dudley Michael Sharp Antonio Castanheira Behdad B. Biglar Trench Limited 10.1 Reactors .......................................................................... 10 -1 10.2 Background and Historical Perspective ....................... 10 -2 10.3 Applications of Reactors ............................................... 10 -3 General Over view . Current Limiting Reactors . Capacitor Reactors . Discharge Current Limiting Reactors . Power Flow Control Reactors . Shunt Reactors (Steady-State Reactive Compensation) . Thyristor Controlled Reactors (Dynamic Reactive Compensation) . Filter Reactors . Reactors for HVDC Application . Series Reactors for Electric Arc Furnace Application . Other Reactors 10.4 Some Important Application Considerations ........... 10 -24 Short Circuit: Basic Concepts . Phase Reactors vs. Bus Tie Reactors . Power Line Balance . Reactive Power Balance 10.5 Shunt Reactors and Switching Transients ................. 10 -30 Current Chopping . Restrike 10.6 Current Limiting Reactors and Switching Transients ................................................... 10 -32 Definitions . Circuit Breakers TRV Capabilities . TRV Evaluation . TRV Mitigation Methods 10.7 Reactor Loss Evaluation .............................................. 10 -34 Reactor Losses . Basic Concepts for Loss Evaluation . Operational Benefits of Loss Evaluation 10.8 De-Q’ing ...................................................................... 10 -36 Paralleled Reactor and Resistor . Reactor w ith a De-Q’ing Ring . Summar y 10.9 Sound Level and Mitigation ....................................... 10 -40 General . Oil-Immersed Reactors . Air-Core Reactors 10.10 Line Traps and Power Line Carrier Communication = Data = Protective Relaying Systems ................................. 10 -43 Coupling Equipment and Hybrids . Receiver–Transmitter Equipment 10.11 Installation Considerations for Dry-Type Air-Core Reactors ........................................................ 10 -47 Introduction . Notes on Safety . Transport and Receiving Inspection . Installation . Partial Indoor Installation . Room Ventilation 10.1 Reactors Reactors, like capacitors, are basic to and an integral part of both distribution and transmission power systems. Depending on their function, reactors are either connected in shunt or in series with the network, singularly (current limiting reactors, shunt reactors) or in conjunction with other basic ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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components such as power capacitors (shunt capacitor sw itching reactors, capacitor discharge reactors, filter reactors). Reactors are utilized to provide inductive reactance in power circuits for a wide variet y of purposes. These include fault current limiting , inrush current limiting for capacitors and motors, harmonic filtering , VAR compensation, reduction of ripple currents, blocking of power line carrier signals, neutral grounding , damping of sw itching transients, flicker reduction for arc furnace applications, circuit de-tuning , load balancing , and power conditioning . Reactors may be installed at any industrial, distribution, or transmission voltage level and may be rated for any current dut y from a few amperes to tens of thousands of amperes and fault current levels of up to hundreds of thousands of amperes. 10.2 Background and Historical Perspective Reactors can be either dr y t y pe or oil immersed. Dr y-ty pe reactors may be of air-core or iron-core construction. In the past, dr y-ty pe air-core reactors were only available in open st yle construction (Figure 10.1); their wi ndings held in place by a mechanical clamping system and
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