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WAR OF INDEPENDENCE 1857:War of Independence is an important landmark in the history of Sub-Continent. This Warwas fought in 1857 by Indians against the British in order to get rid of their domination. Itis also given names as Indian Rebellion, Indian Mutiny as well as Indian Revolt. Themain causes of the War were political, social, economical, military and religious. It wasan extreme effort made by Indians, but they failed due to certain reasons includingmutual jealousies, disunity, and lack of central leadership etc.This war was not spread throughout India but it was limited to few areas mainly Meerut,Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknowetc. The main event which became the immediate cause of thewar was the refusal of the Sepoys to use the grease covered cartridges (greased withfat of pig and cow) on January 23, 1857. At the same time, an Indian sepoy killed twoBritish officers at Barrackpore, when he was forced to use greased cartridges. He wasarrested and hanged to death on April 8, 1857. This news spread as fast as jungle fire.Meerut:On 6th May, 1857 A.D. 85 out of 90 Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to bite thegreased cartridges with their teeth. These 85 soldiers were court-martialled and imprisoned for10 years. They were stripped off their uniforms in the presence of the entire Indian crowd. It wastoo much of a disgrace and this incident sent a wave of indignation. On 10th May 1857, theIndian soldiers at Meerut broke into open revolt. They released their companions and murdereda few European officers. On the night of 10thMay the mutineers marched to Delhi and reachedthere on 11thMay.Delhi:The revolutionaries reached from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May, 1857 and the smallBritish garrison at Delhi was not able to resist and consequently fell into their hands within 2days. The Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was proclaimed Emperor of India. In order toregain Delhi, Sir John Lawrence sent a strong British force commanded by John Nicholson.After a long siege of four months, the British recovered Delhi in September 1857 A.D. TheMughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was captured, his two sons and a grandson were shotdead before his eyes and he was sent to Rangoon where he died in the year 1862 A. D.Kanpur:At Kanpur the struggle for Independence was led by Nana Sahib Dondu Pant(The adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II). A number of British fell into his hands and he showedgreat kindness to them. But when he heard about inhuman attitude of Gen. O’Neil towardsIndians, he became very furious and killed all the British. General Havelock captured Kanpurafter defeating Nana Sahib in a hotly contested battle on June 17, 1857. Later on Nana Sahib,with the help of Tantya Topi, recaptured Kanpur in November, 1857 but not for a long time andBritish defeated them once again in a fierce war from December 1 to 6, 1857. Nana Sahib fledtowards Nepal, where he probably died, while Tantya Tope migrated to Kalpi.
Lucknow:The struggle for independence at Lucknow was led by Nawab, Wajid Ali

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Term
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Indian Rebellion of 1857, Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar

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