Macromolecules Study Guide

Macromolecules Study Guide - Functional Groups - Hydroxyl -...

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Functional Groups - Hydroxyl - Carbonyl - Carboxyl - Amino - Sulfhydral - Phosphate Functional groups – give m olecules distinctive che mical properties Macromolecules - Carbohydrates - Lipids - Nucleic Acids - Proteins Carbohydrates – a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dim ers (disaccharides) or polym ers (polysaccharides) Monosaccharides – linear or ring structure Single sugar molecule Consists of C,H,O Glycosidic bond is the bond betwe en two m onosaccharides or a disaccharide Draw bond
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Dehydration – water leaving as a disaccharide is formed Starch – major storage from of glucose (carbs) in plants Cellulose – structural form of carbs (plants) Chitin – structural form of carbs (arthropods – shrimp, crab, in shell), structural polysaccharide Cellulose has different glycosidic linkages than starch Formation of bonds different Examples of monosaccharides - Aldoses and Ketoses o hexose sugars o trisose sugars o pentos e sugars Cellulose is a m ajor component of the tough walls that e nclose plant cells - difficult to digest 1.What are the 6 different functional groups discussed? What is the purpose of functional groups? Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydral, Phosphat e They give molecules distinctive che mical properties 2.What are the individual/single units of glucose called? Monosaccharides 3.What is the na m e of the bonds that form to m ake a polymer of glucose units? Glycosidic bonds 4.What are the storage forms of glucose? Starch a nd Glycogen 5.What are the other functions of carbohydrates? 1. Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose Sparing the use of proteins for energy Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis Biological recognition processes Flavor and Sweeteners Dietary fiber Lipids – one of a group of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2010 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Antonioizzo during the Fall '09 term at Elon.

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Macromolecules Study Guide - Functional Groups - Hydroxyl -...

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