Psych study guide 3

Psych Study Guide 3
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Some tips for studying for the exam: Actively work at understanding the material in the lecture notes. Those are written in my words, not yours, and you will need to translate them into your words if you really want to understand the material. If you need help understanding something, ask me for clarification. Good luck! Social Psychology 1. What are social norms? The rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors 2. What is normative social influence? What is informational social influence? Normative – influence from person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval Informational – influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality 3. Understand Asch’s experiment as it relates to conformity Everyone would say the wrong answer and the person being tested would always conform and choose the obviously wrong answer as well. Even though they knew it was wrong. 4. How is conformity strengthened? Why do we conform? Strengthening Conformity 1. One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. 2. The group has at least three people. 3. The group is unanimous. 4. One admires the group’s status and attractiveness. 5. One has no prior commitment to a response. 6. The group observes one’s behavior. 7. One’s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard. Why Do We Conform? - Gain social approval - Fear of being labeled negatively and being socially ostracized - The need for social respect - Helps avoid social chaos - Convenience –allows us not to think - Groups provide us with valuable info 5. Understand Milgram’s experiment as it relates to obedience Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. - Milgram’s infamous experiment with electric shocks - Told to shock someone when they get answer wrong 6. What is social facilitation? In what circumstances is behavior enhanced/impaired? Tendency for people to work better/harder when working in the presence of others Enhances performance of overlearned, familiar tasks Impairs performance on novel or difficult tasks 7. What is social loafing? How can it be reduced? Tendency to apply less effort when working as members of a group on a group task
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