Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Bio 112 Exam 1 Study Guide The...

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Bio 112 Exam 1 Study Guide The Scientific Method and Themes of Biology What is science? o A process for evaluating empirical knowledge and for learning about the physical world by applying the principles of the scientific method. Discovery-based and hypothesis-based science o Discovery-based science – focus on describing nature, limited to structures and processes that we can observe and measure o Hypothesis-based science – ask a question and try to find the answer, form a hypothesis and test it Steps in the scientific method o Observation o Question o Hypothesis o Prediction o Test: experimental or additional observation o If test doesn’t support hypothesis: revise hypothesis or pose new one o Test supports hypothesis: make additional predictions and test them Theories in science o Gene theory – genes code for proteins, genes are the units of hereditary information o Cell theory – all living things are made of cells, living cells arise from preexisting cells o Evolutionary theory Genetic change in a population or species An explanation of the unity and diversity of life on Earth o Evolution is the unifying theory in modern biology
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o Intelligent design and why it is not a scientific theory Idea: there are features of living things that are so complex the only explanation is that there’s an intelligent designer Not a scientific theory because it proposes a mechanism (super intelligent designer) that isn’t testable by the methods of science Unifying themes of biology o Emergent Properties Each level has unique characteristics that are not evident in levels above or below, these are emergent properties o Organisms interact with their environments All living things exist in a world of elements which cycle through us and other parts of the system All living things constantly acquire and lost energy, which is transformed as it flows through a system o Structure and function are correlated at all levels Structure allows function to be performed o Cells are units of structure and function Two cell types – cells without a nucleus, prokaryotes, and cells with a nucleus, eukaryotes Both cell types have DNA o Continuity of life is based on heritable information: DNA A strand of DNA that codes for a protein is a gene The same 4 nucleotides make up the DNA of all living things When cells replicate, DNA copies itself (replication almost perfect) o Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems Negative vs. positive feedback loops Negative more common because they maintain life within limits that are acceptable —> regulation of body temperature
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Positive feedback loops —> oxytocin and childbirth, hormone produced to make you go into labor and makes labor more strenuous and intense
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2010 for the course BIO 112 taught by Professor Terribilini during the Spring '10 term at Elon.

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Exam 1 Study Guide - Bio 112 Exam 1 Study Guide The...

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