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Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Bio 112 Exam 2 Study Guide Our second...

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Bio 112 Exam 2 Study Guide Our second exam will cover material from Wednesday, February 24 th up to the end of lecture on Monday, March 15 th . The relevant chapters in the textbook are chapters 16, 17, 22, 23. The exam will NOT include material in the book that was not mentioned in class, so the best way to study is to review your notes, the posted lecture slides, in class activities, and re-read the relevant sections in the textbook. The exam will consist mainly of multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank, with some short answer questions or problems. Mutations How genotype determines phenotype Point mutations and their effects o Can affect protein structure and function o Divided into base-pair substitutions and base-pair insertions or deletions o Substitutions – replaces one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides Missense mutations – still code for an amino acid but not necessarily the right amino acid Nonsense mutations – change an amino acid codon into a stop codon, nearly always leading to a nonfunctional protein o Insertions or deletions – additions or losses of nucleotide pairs in a gene May alter the reading frame, producing a frameshift mutation Causes of mutations o Errors during DNA replication o Some viruses o Radiation o Chemical mutagens Darwin and Descent with Modification Early theories of biological diversity (Aristotle, Creation, Linnaeus, Lamarck)
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o Aristotle – viewed species as fixed and arranged them on a scala naturae o Carolus Linnaeus – interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose o Jean Baptiste Lamarck – proposed a mechanism for evolution of species Use and disuse Inheritance of acquired characteristics o Charles Lyell – theory of gradualism – the Earth is ancient and sculpted by gradual changes, like mountains growing a few centimeters higher each year Charles Darwin and his ideas o Naturalist on the Beagle, collected biological materials of all kinds then analyzed findings o Species change over time Current species are descended from ancestral species Descent with modification (evolution) – the view that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past o Natural selection The means (“mechanism”) by which “descent with modification” occurs Artificial selection – selecting and breeding individuals with desired traits Four observations and two inferences supporting natural selection o Observations Members of a population often vary greatly in their traits Traits are inherited from parents to offspring All species have the reproductive potential to increase exponentially in
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Exam 2 Study Guide - Bio 112 Exam 2 Study Guide Our second...

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