#24 - (Sec. 15.9) • The more polar the H-X bond and/or...

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Chapter 15: Acids and Bases Diprotic and Polyprotic acids, Molecular Structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.8 – 15.9)
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A1. General properties of acids and bases (Review of Sec. 4.3) A2. Arrhenius Acids and Bases (Review of Sec. 2.7 and Sec. 4.3) B1. Brønsted Acids and Bases (Sec. 15.1) B2. Acid-Base Properties of Water (Sec. 15.2) C. The pH (and pOH) Scale – A Measures of Acidity (Sec. 15.3) D. Strength of Acids and Bases (Sec. 15.4) E. Weak Acids and K a (Sec. 15.5) F. Weak Bases and K b (Sec. 15.5) G. Relationship Between K a and K b for Conjugates (Sec. 15.5) A Quick Summary:
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H. Dyprotic and polyprotic acids (Sec. 15.8) Recommended problems: 15.64, 15.67-15.70
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I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) Factors affecting the acid strength: Strength of the H-X bond Polarity of the H-X bond (difference in electronegativity Stability of the X - ion
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I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) HF << HCl < HBr < HI H X H + + X - The stronger the bond The weaker the acid
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I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength
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Unformatted text preview: (Sec. 15.9) • The more polar the H-X bond and/or the weaker the H-X bond, the more acidic the compound. • So acidity increases from left to right across a row and from top to bottom down a group. I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) Y O H Y O-+ H + d-d + The O-H bond will be more polar and easier to break if: • Y is very electronegative or • Y is in a high oxidation state oxoacids I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) In oxyacids, in which an -OH is bonded to another atom, Y, the more electronegative Y is, the more acidic the acid. (fixed oxidation number of Y) I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) For a series of oxyacids, acidity increases with the number of oxygens (oxidation number of central atom Y) I. Molecular structure and Acid Strength (Sec. 15.9) Resonance in the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids stabilizes the base and makes the conjugate acid more acidic....
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2010 for the course CHEM 155 taught by Professor Burnett,joe during the Fall '08 term at Iowa State.

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#24 - (Sec. 15.9) • The more polar the H-X bond and/or...

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