UNIT 2 2010-I-01

UNIT 2 2010-I-01 - ENGR 4760U Ethics, Law and...

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Unformatted text preview: ENGR 4760U Ethics, Law and Professionalism for Engineers Unit 2 Ethics Unit 2010-I-01 2010-I-01 Dr. J. Michael Bennett, P.Eng., PMP UOIT 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 1 Unit 2 Ethics Change Record s 2010-I-01 Initial Creation 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-2 Unit 2 Ethics Course Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The Engineering Profession Ethics Engineering Law Intellectual and Industrial Property Conflict Resolution The Contracting Process Other Legal Issues for Professional Engineers Occupational Health and Safety Privacy Issues Legal Landmines in E-Commerce International Trade Environmental Laws and Regulations ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-3 Unit 2 Ethics Unit 2 Roadmap s s s s s s s s s s 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Moral Frameworks 2.3 Four Theories of Ethics 2.4 Formal Definition of Ethics 2.5 Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 2.6 Case Studies 2.7 Ethical Problems in Management 2.8 Management Case Studies 2.9 Ethical Problems in Practice 2.10 FIDEC Code of Ethics ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-4 Unit 2 Ethics 2 Engineering Ethics 1 of 4 branches of philosophy s Good/evil, right/wrong, justice/ideals, Good/evil, obligations/rights obligations/rights s “defining, analyzing, evaluating and defining, resolving moral problems leading to moral criteria that guides human behaviour” criteria s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-5 Unit 2 Ethics The Big 7 Themes of Eng Ethics I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. 2010-I-01 Engineering as Social Experimentation Ethics and Excellent Go Together Personal Commitment and Meaning Promoting Responsible Conduct and Promoting Preventing Wrong-doing Preventing Resolving Ethical Dilemmas Micro and Macro Ethics Cautious Optimism about Technology ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-6 Unit 2 Ethics I Engineering as Social Experimentation s s s s Projects generate new possibilities but also risks. Projects Must share the responsibility for creating benefits, preventing harm and pointing out dangers preventing Columbia Explosion (what difference do a few tiles Columbia make; I’ve got a schedule to keep!) make; Challenger Disaster (damn the O rings; I’ve got a Challenger schedule to keep!) schedule Titanic (Icebergs schmicebergs; I’ve got a schedule Titanic to keep!) to ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-7 Unit 2 Ethics New technologies are Janus-like 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-8 Unit 2 Ethics New Technologies are Dangerous “Janus-like” (good news and bad news) New possibilities with new dangers Engineers must accept and share Engineers responsibility for their work responsibility Exercise due care; foresee hazards Exercise (HAZOP) (HAZOP) Monitor their projects Alert other of dangers ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-9 Unit 2 Ethics Case Study: LeMessurier and Citicorp s s s s s s Engineer who build the Citicorp Tower in NYC Engineer (5th highest skyscraper) (5 Had to be built OVER a church Rises from 4 9-story high stilts 59 stories, Built in 1977 Uses an imaginatively designed truss frame that Uses incorporates outside wind braces for stability incorporates Tuned mass damper at top to keep building from Tuned swaying in the wind swaying ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-10 Unit 2 Ethics Citicorp 5 and Lexington NYC th 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-11 Unit 2 Ethics Axonometric view: Citicorp Building 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-12 Unit 2 Ethics The Story s s s 1 year later, student asks what a quartering wind year would do (40% stronger than a planar wind). Note that the building code only specified planar wind forces! forces! BM says no problem; the wind braces were of the BM highest quality weld BM contacts the engineer responsible for the BM erection and is told that Bethlehem steel did not think that they needed welding so they were just bolted together. Much weaker! bolted ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-13 Unit 2 Ethics Part 2 Check with Allan Davenport at UWO’s Check wind tunnel. He simulates the quartering wind and shows that the stresses are MUCH higher than 40%. higher s AND a wind like that comes every 16 years AND to New York to s Whoopsie! s 2-14 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Unit 2 Ethics What should BM do? 1. 2. 3. Open his veins (considered that) Shut his mouth (had been approved by the Shut City and was within code) City Spill the beans 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-15 Unit 2 Ethics And The Envelope Please s s s s s Bill tells all! Bank and Insurers decide to retrofit the braces: Bank welding 2” thick steel plates over more than 200 bolted joints (requires shielding from people as the building is occupied). building Near the end, Hurricane Ella appears to be headed Near for NYC! Veered off at the last moment for Settled out of court. Insurance paid $2M. Cost was Settled $12.5. Paid by Citicorp $12.5. BM a HERO ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-16 Unit 2 Ethics II Ethics and Excellent Go Together s s Moral values are embedded at several junctures of Moral engineering projects (Citicorp) engineering Junctures: x x x x Basic standards of safety and efficiency Structure of corporations as communities of ethical Structure people engaged in shared activities people Ethical character of the engineer Engineering; a profession combining advanced skill Engineering; with commitment to the public good (DO NO HARM!) with 2-17 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Unit 2 Ethics III Personal Commitment and Meaning s s s Engineers are required to meet the responsibilities Engineers of the code of ethics. of But sources of meaning can be highly personal; But and not shared by all. and Difficult areas: x x x x x Religion Environment Military work Family Personal ambitions ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-18 Unit 2 Ethics IV Promoting Responsible Conduct and Preventing Wrong-doing s s s s s 2001 Enron; 2002 WorldCom These folks KNEW they were doing wrong Arthur Anderson condoned Enron’s chicanery; Arthur now out of business now Must obey the law; no fraud, theft, bribery, Must incompetence, etc etc incompetence, Must have processes in place to see no wrongdoing is in place. Imagine a 401 with no OPP! ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-19 Unit 2 Ethics V Resolving Ethical Dilemmas This happens all the time s Ethical dilemmas are situations where Ethical moral reasons come into conflict. moral s Normally not obvious the best way to go s May be many ways s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-20 Unit 2 Ethics VI Micro and Macro Ethics Micro issues concern decisions made by Micro individuals and companies individuals s Macro issues concern global issues s SUVs s x Micro: Ford Explorer and Firestone x Macro: problem of SUVs in general 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-21 Unit 2 Ethics Ford Explorer (Micro Ethics) s s s s s s Tread on Explorer tires separated from the tire Tread causing rollovers and blowouts. Hundreds killed. Billions of dollars in class action suites Billions Bridgestone/Firestone used a flawed tire design Poor quality control on manufacturing Ford chose tires with a poor safety margin (low Ford cost!) cost!) Relied on users to maintain tire pressure within a Relied very narrow range very Dragged its feet on recall ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-22 Unit 2 Ethics SUVs (Macro Ethics) s s s s s s s s Very harmful on the road Instability with high centre of gravity Far higher kill rate of other cars drivers Reduce vision of other drivers Blind other drivers’ vision Guzzle mucho gaso 3,000 die every year over driving ordinary cars Going to get worse as young bucks buy old ones! ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-23 Unit 2 Ethics VII Cautious Optimism about Technology s Pessimists opine: x pollution x Depletion of natural resources x Killing of many many species x Mass death on the highways x Fear of chemical warfare (esp terrorist) x Landmines x Threat of nuclear war x Global warming 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-24 Unit 2 Ethics 20 Top Achievements of 20thc Engineering 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Electrification Automobiles Airplanes Water supply Electronics Radio/TV Ag mechanization Computers Telephones Air conditioning ©Dr. Michael Bennett 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Highways Spacecrafts Internet Imaging technologies Household appliances Petrochemical tech Laser and fiber optics Health technologies Nuclear technologies High-performance High-performance materials materials Winter 2010 2010-I-01 Ethics, Law and Professionalism 2-25 Unit 2 Ethics Herbert Hoover on Engineering s s “It (engineering) is a great profession. There is the fascination of It watching a figment of the imagination emerge through the aid of science to a plan on paper. Then it moves to realization in stone or metal or energy. Then it brings jobs and homes to men. Then it elevates the standards of living and adds to the comforts of life. That is the engineer’s high privilege. the The great liability of the engineer compared to men (sic) of other The professions is that his works are out in the open where all men can see them. His acts, step by step, are in hard substance. He cannot bury his mistakes like the doctors. He cannot argue them into thin air or blame the judge, like the lawyers. He cannot, like the architects, cover his failures with trees and vines. He cannot, like politicians, screen his shortcomings by blaming his opponents and hope that the people will forget. The engineer simply cannot deny that he did it. If his works do not work, he is DAMNED” not ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-26 Unit 2 Ethics 2.3 Four Theories of Ethics s s s s Mill’s Utilitarianism x Greatest good for greatest number Categorical imperative to behave well Rights because you are alive Goodness of act depends on function/goal Golden Mean ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Kant’s Formalism x Locke’s Rights x Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics x x 2010-I-01 2-27 Unit 2 Ethics The 4 Theories Mills Mills utilitarianismutilitarianismbased Kant’s Dutybased A statement is correct if it produces the statement greatest benefit for the greatest number of people. Must consider duration, intensity, equal distribution intensity, Conflicts arise amongst Conflicts benefits. Your benefit has to be balanced against someone’s loss someone’s Duty is to do what would be acceptable Conflicts arise if principle Duty Conflicts for everyone to follow may cause harm. Telling a for white lie because it might hurt hurt Everyone is free-and-equal. All have Everyone rights to life, health, liberty, and possessions of her labour possessions Happiness comes from developing Happiness virtues and qualities of character, thru deduction and reason. An act is good if it comes from reason it ©Dr. Michael Bennett Locke’s Locke’s Right-based Right-based Aristotle Aristotle Virtue-based Virtue-based Can be hard to tell if one’s Can person rights infringe on another’s another’s Definition of virtue is hard Definition and may be culturally dependent. Golden mean can be good can Winter 2010 2010-I-01 Ethics, Law and Professionalism 2-28 Unit 2 Ethics 1 Mill’s Utilitarianism Always do what produces the most good for Always the most people the s Looks similar to Cost-Benefit analysis Looks (just add up the goodies and subtract the baddies) baddies) s Not so s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-29 Unit 2 Ethics Case Study: Ford Pinto For years, the best-selling compact in North For America America s Test showed that the windshield would pop Test out in collisions. So engineers moved the drive train back so that the differential was close to the gas tank close s Many exploded on rear-end collisions s 2-30 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Unit 2 Ethics CBA s s s s s s s $11 part would greatly reduce the likelihood of injuries $11 ands death BUT ands Would drive the cost over $2,000 (perceived price-point) Would have to recall 12,5 million cars for a total cost of Would $137 million $137 But a death was worth $200,000 and an injury $67,000 Assumed 180m burn deaths (not a nice way to go!) and Assumed 180 serious injuries for a total cost of $49.5M 180 CBA says don’t put the part in! This is NOT Mill’s theory 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-31 Unit 2 Ethics Utilitarianism s s s Used by democracies all the time Problem is quantifying “maximum benefit” Mills suggested 3 factors should be considered 1 number of people affected 2 intensity of pleasure (pain) 3 Duration of pleasure (pain) Often please one set at the expense of another 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-32 Unit 2 Ethics Kant’s Formalism or Duty Ethics Every human has a duty to act in a correct Every and ethical manner and s Categorical Imperative s The intension is the thing not the result s No white lies! s If you do your duty, all will be well If (Teutonic eh?) (Teutonic s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-33 Unit 2 Ethics Kant’s Can’ts Be honest s Be fair s Do not hurt others s Do no harm s Do not lie s Never steal s Keep your promises s Obey the law s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-34 Unit 2 Ethics Problem Life is never black and white but gray s Does not consider the outcome of the action s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-35 Unit 2 Ethics 3 Locke’s Rights Ethics Every individual has rights because they Every exist exist The right to life and the right to the The maximum possible individual liberty is key maximum American Declaration of Independence Canadian Bill of Rights 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-36 Unit 2 Ethics Canadian Charter of Rights s s s s s Fundamental freedom of conscience, religion, Fundamental thought, belief, opinion, expression, peaceful assembly and association assembly Democratic rights to vote Mobility rights to enter, remain in and leave Canada Mobility (except provinces of course!) (except Legal rights to life, liberty and the security of the Legal person and the rights not to be deprived of these rights (unless you are deemed a terrorist!) rights Equality rights before and under the law and the Equality right to equal benefit and protection of the law right ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-37 Unit 2 Ethics Declaration of Rights (Jefferson) s We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are We created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. --That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-38 Unit 2 Ethics Buuut Thomas kept slaves! s Do you see the word “woman” ? s As the Pigs said in “Animal Farm” s “All us animals are equal but us pigs are a All little more equal that the rest of you!” little s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-39 Unit 2 Ethics Problems Locke would argue that income tax is Locke unethical because it deprives a person of their owned income their s Mills would refute this s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-40 Unit 2 Ethics 4 Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics The goodness of an act, object or person The depends on the function or goal concerned depends s Humans need to achieve true happiness by Humans developing the virtues of thought, reason, deduction and logic deduction s Virtues need to achieve the Golden Mean Virtues between excess and deficiency between s 2-41 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Unit 2 Ethics Examples s Modesty is the golden mean between the Modesty excess of vanity and the deficiency of humility humility 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-42 Unit 2 Ethics Problems Hard to define “virtue” s What actually IS the mean? s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-43 Unit 2 Ethics 2.4 Precise Definition of Eng Ethics Are defined in the various provincial acts s Ontario defines the Ontario Code of Ethics Ontario but it is not enforceable under the Act. Not so with all of the others. so s Is covered under misconduct. s Two additional items s x Must post the Licence at place of work x Must inform employer of all moon-lighting 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-44 Unit 2 Ethics The 7 Ethical Duties (in order) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Duty to Society (major duty) Duty to Employers Duty to Clients Duty to Colleagues Duty to Employees and Subordinates Duty to the Engineering Profession Duty to Oneself ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-45 Unit 2 Ethics Case Study A Chinese-born student (who is not doing Chinese-born well) gives his 4760 prof a nice box of Godiva Chocolates for Valentine’s Day as a gift. This is the custom in her homeland. gift. s What ethical dilemmas are posed to the What prof? prof? s What is the ethical solution for the prof What here? here? s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-46 Unit 2 Ethics Code of Ethics of the PEO 1) His/her duty to the public, employer, His/her clients, colleagues and himself to act at all times with times 1) 2) 3) Fairness and loyalty to associates, employers, Fairness clients, subordinates, employees clients, Fidelity to the public’s needs Devotion to high ideals of personal honour Devotion and professional integrity and ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-47 Unit 2 Ethics 2) A Practitioner shall i) ii) iii) iv) Regard his/her duty to public welfare as Regard paramount paramount Enhance the public’s regard for engineering Not express publicly PEng opinions not founded Not on adequate knowledge and honest conviction on Display his licence at his/her place of business 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-48 Unit 2 Ethics 3) He/she Shall Act as a faithful agent or trustee s Keep confidentiality wrt employers s x Business affairs x Technical methods or processes s Disclose any possible CofIs 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-49 Unit 2 Ethics 4) He/she shall tell the client of s Any conflict of interest that may be Any prejudicial in any way to the professional judgment in rendering services to the client judgment 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-50 Unit 2 Ethics 5) If he/she contracts out beyond s His/her employer, he/she must x Provide the client with a written statement of Provide the nature of his status with his employer the x Must prove that this work will not conflict with Must his/her duty to the employer and his/her x Report the work to the employer 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-51 Unit 2 Ethics 6) He/she must s Cooperate in working with other Cooperate professionals professionals 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-52 Unit 2 Ethics 7) He/she Shall: i) ii) i) ii) Act towards colleagues with courtesy and Act good faith good Not review the work of another PEng Not except: except: With his/her knowledge His/her connection with the work has been His/her terminated terminated 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-53 Unit 2 Ethics 8) He/she Shall Maintain the honour and integrity of the Maintain profession profession s Expose (before the proper tribunals) Expose unprofessional, unethical or dishonest conduct by any other engineer conduct s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-54 Unit 2 Ethics 2.5 Resolving Ethical Issues s Use the Engineering approach 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-55 Unit 2 Ethics Apply the Engineering Design Process to Ethical Situations 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Recognizing the problem/need Gather information to formulate problem/ goal Generate alternative solutions Cost Benefit Analysis of Alternatives Decide and optimize design Implement best solution ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-56 Unit 2 Ethics Ethics Problems s Employer Authority and Employee Duties x PHB has management authority to direct the PHB company resources company x You have the technical authority to exercise You your special knowledge and skill your x Each must contract to respect each other’s Each authority authority 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-57 Unit 2 Ethics Areas of Moral Conflict Illegal actions s Actions contrary to the Code s Actions contrary to the conscience of the Actions Engineer Engineer s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-58 Unit 2 Ethics Illegal Actions PHB asks you to copy a bunch of Office-2K PHB disks disks s You should: s x Advise PHB that this is illegal x Resist any attempt to break the law 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-59 Unit 2 Ethics Actions contrary to the Code Not necessarily illegal but against the code s PHB may be ignorant s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-60 Unit 2 Ethics Actions Contrary to the Conscience of the Engineer This is HARD s Depends on the moral climate of the time s You are asked to build a gas oven at You Auschwitz Auschwitz s You are asked to write software to record You the email activities of anyone connected to the Bloc Québécois party the ébécois s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-61 Unit 2 Ethics What to Do if PHB is Unethical 1st, try to correct problem within the 1st, company framework (escalation) company s 2nd, continue to work while informing 2nd, regulatory agencies of wrong-doing (whistle-blowing); polish resume! (whistle-blowing); s 3rd resign in protest but check with Lawyer 3rd Loophole first Loophole s 2-62 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6 Some Case Studies 2.6.1 Accepting a job offer 2.6.1 2.6.2 Slow promotion 2.6.3 Moonlighting 2.6.4 Engineers as members of a Labour 2.6.4 Union Union 2.6.5 False data in advertising 2.6.6 Disclosing proprietary information 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-63 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.1 Accepting a Job Offer Jayne Payne is nearing graduation and is seeking a permanent job. She Jayne clearly states that her interests are in mainly in software engineering but she applies to other electrically-related companies because the recession is setting in and she needs a permanent position . She receives an offer from Dinosaur Power Generation to work on scheduling maintenance operations on their substations in Kat Phart Saskatchewan. The salary being good, there being no other software engineering offers and the prospect of employment as a greeter at WalMart being unappetizing, she accepts. A day later, Walk-TheWalMart Dog.com offers her a position on a new project in XML web-based Dog.com design (her fav). The salary is about the same but the position is a contract-based one. To sweeten the deal WTD will also offer stock options. In addition, WTD is based in San Fran. What should she do? options. 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-64 Unit 2 Ethics The Engineering Design Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Recognize that there is a problem is and gather all Recognize the information you can about it the Define the problem to be solved or the goal to be Define obtained obtained Generate at least 3 solutions Evaluate the benefits and costs of each (you can Evaluate try casting them 1 of the 4 theories) try Pick the best, stating why and optimize it Do it ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-65 Unit 2 Ethics 1 The Problem Jayne has given her word to join DPG s DPG has invested time and money in the DPG hiring process hiring s Now she has a better offer s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-66 Unit 2 Ethics 2 The Ethical Dilemma s To honour her commitment to DPG or to To take the new offer take 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-67 Unit 2 Ethics 3 JP’s Options 1. 2. 3. 4. Honour her commitment to DPG Write to DPG, tell them her plans have changed. Although Write she will be eventually bound by the Engineering CoE, she is still a lowly student and does not feel obligated to do so now. now. Write to DPG as above, refuse the job, but offer to Write reimburse them for any out-of-pocket expenses they may have occurred have Write to WTD and tell them that she is contractually Write bound to DPG but in a few years, she would consider joining them in a project then joining ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-68 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.2 Slow Promotion Billy Byte is a licensed software engineer working for the prestigious Billy HAL computer corporation at their research laboratory in the navel of the universe, aka Toronto. He first worked there as an intern and HAL was so impressed with his work that they offered him full-time employment working on the redesign of their C++ compiler. BB was sent away to many important HAL labs worldwide to receive the best compiler training in the world. He came back to TO and worked happily on the C++ project for his next 4 years. Now he feels that he has reached a dead end. He is very knowledgeable but his advancement is blocked by other HAL employees who have greater seniority with the company., Past history has shown that HAL rewards seniority over ability. He feels that he owes HAL for funding all of his training, He likes his coworkers and knows that his position will be very difficult to replace and will likely cost the company big bucks in lost sales On the other hand there are several vendors in the TO area that would love to hire him at a much higher salary and position. What should Billy do? should 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-69 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.3 Moonlighting Mary Carey, although educated as a software engineer, has always been Mary interested in education. She deliberated chose a job as a high school teacher to encourage young women to enter the profession. Time passes, she adopts 3 orphans, her salary has flat-lined and the money is getting tight. She knows that had she gone to work for a software company, she would be making much more but she still loves teaching. So she decides to free-lance as a web-designer. Using her computer and Internet connect at work but only in the evening hours, she makes a tidy sum doing this work. She is very careful to use her own pens and pencils and nothing of the school is used except the computer, which she argues, is just lying idle then anyway. She also argues that this permits her to stay teaching so the school is benefiting from this activity. from Is Mary being ethical? Why or why not? 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-70 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.4 Engineers as Members of a Labour Union Normally not a problem s But if all of the Engineers form one s Key is that engineers do NOT exert Key managerial control in the company managerial s Note that the Union can be a private one Note (like UWO’s; all eng profs belong to the “union”) “union”) s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-71 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.5 False Data in Advertising Davey Digitus is the lead software engineer for Green Beret, a Canadian Davey Linux start-up. Competition in this field is really tough and GB is just keeping its head above the red ink. In the latest push to capture market-share, the Marketing Dweebs bring out a glossy ad in the Globe, claiming that GB’s new version of Linux 2.4 can support up to 4 Gigausers and 64 processors. You have tested the system on a 4Gigausers processor board and know that it croaks out at 64 users, running trivial processor scripts. There is no way in burning hell that it could support those numbers. What is worse is that most of GB’s customers are in the realnumbers. time control field such as nuclear reactors. And these are the folks that time have been demanding the new software as their applications are computationally intensive. What should Davey do? computationally 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-72 Unit 2 Ethics 2.6.6 Disclosing Proprietary Information Magmaworks is a real-time company providing command-and-control Magmaworks software for Nokia. Nokia’s approach is to have duplicate software OEMers develop software for the new cellphones and then select the better of the two. In trial tests of the new software running on their latest model, you, MW’s lead engineer, discovers that under certain abnormal loading conditions, the phone will emit 1000 times the expected amount of RF radiation. MW suspects that this will lead to a 100-fold increase in brain cancer. To verify this, they commission a study to see if it is true. This will delay the delivery of the software to Nokia for 3 months.Then they hear that their arch competitor, WagmaMorks, is about to deliver their version to Nokia. You, as the lead engineer, know that they have not discovered the problem. But to disclose what you have found out will give them your expensivelydisclose derived information. But not to disclose this would potentially derived exposure millions of Canadians to brain cancer. What is your solution? exposure 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-73 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7 Ethical problems in Management 2.7.1 Adherence to the Act s 2.7.2 Reviewing Work s 2.7.3 Discrimination s 2.7.4 Software-related Problems s 2.7.5 Hiring and Firing s 2.7.6 Case Studies s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-74 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7.1 Adherence to the Act Must make sure that the Act is followed s 2 biggies; it is ILLEGAL to s x Use unlicensed personnel to carry out the work x Misuse engineering titles 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-75 Unit 2 Ethics Use of unlicensed personnel to carry out the work Must be done under the supervision of a P Must Eng Eng s If you see this happening, you are obligated If to correct the situation to s In software this is going to be tricky s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-76 Unit 2 Ethics Misuse of engineering titles “engineer” is misused all the time s Network “engineer” s Microsoft “engineer” Microsoft s “Software engineer” s You can be doing/studying/teaching You software engineering but only a PEng is a Software Engineer! Software s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-77 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7.2 Reviewing Work Engineers can only do work within their Engineers limits of competency limits s Managers cannot assign work outside of Managers these boundaries these s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-78 Unit 2 Ethics Reviews For accuracy s To assess competence s Remember the reviewee MUST know that Remember his/her work is being reviewed, unless that person is no longer associated with the work work s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-79 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7.3 Discrimination Charter of Rights and Freedoms s Watch out for asking things like s x Age x “Race” x Ethnic background x Marital status 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-80 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7.4 Software-related Problems s s Backups Software privacy x x x In USA, $100,000 (civil) per title; up to $250,000 In (criminal) and 5 years in the Big House! (criminal) In Canada, Copyright violation. $20K/pop Criminal up to $1M Modification (official) One backup permitted s Note 2 exclusions x x s 35% CDN pirated; China, 99% ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-81 Unit 2 Ethics 2.7.5 Hiring and Firing Hiring best handled with a contract s Spec out duration, duties, payment etc Spec formally formally s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-82 Unit 2 Ethics Termination for Just Cause (H.L.Levitt The Law of Dismissal in Canada CSPE, Sept. 1981) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Serious misconduct Habitual neglect of duty Serious incompetence Conduct incompatible with his/her duties or Conduct prejudicial to the business of the company prejudicial Wilful disobedience to a lawful and reasonable Wilful order of a superior in a matter of substance order 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-83 Unit 2 Ethics 6. Theft, fraud or dishonesty 7. Continual insolence and insubordination 8. Excessive absenteeism despite corrective 8. counselling counselling 9. Permanent illness 10. Inadequate job performance over an extended 10. period of time as a result of drug or alcohol abuse and failure to accept or respond to the company’s attempt to rehabilitate company’s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-84 Unit 2 Ethics Just Cause Firing Means company does not have to pay Means severance severance s Be sure to document everything and to Be follow those rules to the letter (not the spirit) of the law spirit) s Otherwise big bucks in defamation suit s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-85 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8 Management Case Studies 2.8.1 The Unlicensed Engineer 2.8.2 Dismissal of the Offensive Engineer 2.8.3 Conflict of Interest 2.8.4 Errors in Plan or Specification 2.8.5 Manipulation of Data 2.8.6 Professional Accountability 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-86 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.1 The Unlicensed Engineer You are the Project Manager at Macrohard, involved in writing the backup software for the new version of Curtains-U, a real-time operating up system being built for an airline client that has demanded that only P.Engs work on the software. Part of your job is to hire and fire team members as appropriate. Six months ago, you hired Fearless Fortbol, a super C++ software engineer from Saskatchewan. During the employment interview, you emphasized that it was essential that he be licensed and the letter of appointment sent to him clearly stated that he was being hired as a Professional Engineer. After Fearless started to work, you had a sign placed on his door and had business cards printed, both of which had the P.Eng designation after his name. You are startled when Planes-R-Us threats to place the contract in breach because Fearless is a Computer Scientist who took a course once in Software Engineering at Moo U. You contact the PES and find out that Fearless is indeed NOT licensed. Now you are furious. 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-87 Unit 2 Ethics Questions Who is responsible for this? s Can you fire FF for just cause? s Would your answer change if a - He was licensed but neglected to apply He for a transfer for b - he was in the process of transferring s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-88 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.2 Dismissal of the Offensive Engineer Klaus T Mouth. P.Eng, is well-known for his boorish behaviour and Klaus language. After the company picnic, the PHB calls you into his office and orders you to fire KTM. The reason that the PHB gives is that he disgraced himself by loudly insulting the PHB at the picnic in front of many employees. You had observed the incident. After too many beers, they started to argue over who would win the Super Bowl. KTM is from Boston and reacted in a typical Patriot’s way, loudly supporting his team with foul language and casting doubts on the paternity of the PHB’s mother, sister and pet Rottweiler. You, as KTM’s immediate supervisor, point out that KTM is an excellent employee and a great asset to the software team. PHB replies that KTM’s behaviour was offensive and insubordinate and insubordination is just grounds for dismissal. He hints that if you do not do his bidding, you too will be regarded as insubordinate. You know full well that even if you are not fired, PHB sets your salary increase for the next year., sets What should you do and how should you proceed? 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-89 Unit 2 Ethics Example: Frique and Fraque Frique and Fraque are best friends and are both professional software engineers Frique working on systems software for embedded controllers for one of Bruce’s nuclear reactors. While spending time with each other after work, Fraque learned that Frique has both a drinking and drug problem that has affected Frique’s mental stability and technical judgment in the past and apparently now. Fraque now believes that Frique’s addiction is affecting the software that he is writing, for he has seen glaring errors in some of his code. He also knows that the software errors will soon become obvious to the Project Manager but he does not want to rat on his best friend. he What should Fraque do? Use the 4 ethics views to choose the right course of ethical action. 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-90 Unit 2 Ethics Formal Analysis s Kant’s Duty x Fraque has a duty to report to management for Fraque treatment, reassignment, disciplinary action treatment, x Code of ethics say he must x Has a duty to his friend to help him overcome Has his addiction DISCLOSE his s Locke’s Rights x Frique’s health is his problem and has a right to Frique’s privacy NO DISCLOSE privacy ©Dr. Michael Bennett 2010-I-01 Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-91 Unit 2 Ethics Formal Analysis Utilitarianism – balance the risk of harm to Utilitarianism the project and to the public. Intensity of harm is important; loss to project, harm to public, both F&F may well be fired and Frique will stay addicted. DISCLOSE Frique s Aristotle’ Virtue s x Addiction is extreme as is abstinence; GM says Addiction moderation. moderation. x CONDEMN and DISCLOSE 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-92 Unit 2 Ethics Conclusion No clear one s 3 out of 4 say Fraque MUST do something s Could try to get him to go on sick leave s Would like to have more details s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-93 Unit 2 Ethics Point Is Analysis from each of the four positions Analysis and then make your decision and s Back it up s If you can quote legal cases BONUS s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-94 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.3 True Story Matilda Mosfet has been hired by the company’s owner as a manufacturing engineer. She is assigned to work on the company’s most important project. Her boss is John Harrychest, a well-known man-about-town. Several years ago, M and J worked at the same company. In that position, JH had embezzled funds from that company, got caught and spent 2 years in the Big House. JH is now in charge of a substantial budget and M guesses that he did not tell the boss of his peccadilloes in his former life. All goes well for a couple of months; M gets good reviews. Then one day her car breaks down and she is an hour late for work. JT fires her on the spot for tardiness. M figures that he did this to prevent her from ratting on him, which she had no intention of doing. had Is JH right? What do you think happens next and why? 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-95 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.4 Errors in Plan or Specification Norman Nerdo is the chief software engineer for Black Window Webs, a Norman web page creator firm. BWW has received a major contract from Preying Mantis Concepts to construct 100 web pages that have been designed by PMC, a company that often a competitor of BWW’s. PMC is overloaded at this time and thus has contracted the work out to BWW. One of NN’s engineers notices that the designs will not work under even moderate loading conditions, let alone heavy ones. NN checks the work and agrees. So he phones up the chief designer at PMC. She testily states that she is too busy to recheck the designs and besides, has full confidence in her people. She points out that NN has been contracted to build the pages, not design them. Finally she points out that he is criticizing a fellow engineer’s work, which of course is unethical. unethical. What should NN do? 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-96 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.5 Manipulation of Data You are the product manager for the new Macrohard operating system, You Windows-YQ. The world news release for YQ is planned for next week at the annual shareholders meeting in Seattle, a week before the fourth quarter profit estimates are to hit the street. The stock is low at the moment but Macrohard has high hopes that this new OS release will generate not only massive revenues, but the stock price will be driven up on that anticipatory good news. Alas, your quality control team has just reported that the release is bug-ridden and needs several months of rework to reach acceptable quality standards. The team nevertheless feels that this can be done in 6 months.You present your results to the president, Mr. Goats. He of course had hoped that the news would be much better so he could tell the shareholders next week that the revenue targets would be met. He asks you to keep the poor results confidential and not to report them to anyone until after the shareholders meeting. the Is it ethical to keep this information confidential from the shareholders? 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-97 Unit 2 Ethics 2.8.6 Professional Accountability Barbie Dahl, P.Eng. is a software engineering working for the Toronto branch of Barbie Bell Computers, a worldwide supplier of personal computers. Bell has production facilities throughout North America. Those plants compete with Toronto for production mandates. Toronto Dahl started with Bell 5 years ago as a junior coder, reporting to Ken Dahl Komplacent, P.Eng., the senior software engineer. At the beginning, the Canadian plant was highly successful. However, over the last 5 years, the plant has become steadily less competitive compared with its sister plants in the US and Mexico. When Ken retired recently, Barbie was promoted to his job. job. Having just passed her ethics exam, she was very aware of the importance of Having professional ethics. She had noticed over her 5 years that unusual things were happening at Bell. For example, supplies often ran out before forecast, inventory was invariably balanced by assuming losses and there were frequent shortages in customer shipments. In the human resources area, she noticed a tendency to “horseplay” on the graveyard shift. Often fellow programmers would use “cheesecake” pictures for screen savers. She often found some prowling around porno sites. There also appeared to be lax attention to the actual actual 2010-I-01 hours that people Bennett coupled with high overtime. Winter 2010 ©Dr. Michael worked, Ethics, Law and Professionalism 2-98 Unit 2 Ethics Barbie & Ken cont. These things bothered her and she had approached Ken several times. Each time he These played down her concerns and said that being “easy” on the boys helped keep morale and productivity up Although Dahl was convinced that some employees were taking memory chips and software home and lying about their true hours of work. As a junior engineer, she decided to take Ken’s advice and keep quiet since the infractions appeared to be of little consequence. Besides, she knew what happens to whistle-blowers! what However, shortly after taking Ken’s job, there was a major theft over the weekend. However, A truck had pulled up to the warehouse, had not been challenged, loaded up with lots of goodies and disappeared. The police soon caught the thieves, who turned out to be employees, one of them a relative of a senior manager. The police also found out that there was an extensive network of employees involved in the operation. To top things off, Barbie gets a fax from corporate headquarters, wanting to know why the Toronto's software costs were so high and productivity, compared to the other NA plants, so low. The fax concluded with he ominous message “understand a major theft has occurred. Will be in Toronto tomorrow after noon to review your situation” to 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-99 Unit 2 Ethics What’s a Poor Girl to do? Should Barbie Dahl be held accountable Should for the employees’ actions? What lessons can be learned from this case? lessons 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-100 Unit 2 Ethics 2.9 Ethical Problems in Practice Client-consultant relationship s Advertising s Engineering competence s Use of the seal s Confidentiality s Conflict of Interest s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-101 Unit 2 Ethics Client-consultant Relationships s Three models x Independence model x Balanced model x Agent model 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-102 Unit 2 Ethics Advertising Have to be careful s No “self-laudatory” statements s Classy, low-key s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-103 Unit 2 Ethics Ontario Rules Has to be done in a dignified, professional Has manner, like undertaking! manner, s Factual without exaggerations s Cannot criticize, directly or indirectly, any Cannot other P.Eng other s Cannot use Seal or PEOs seal on any Cannot materials for advertising materials s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-104 Unit 2 Ethics Inappropriate Advertising s s s s s s Claims for a greater degree of responsibility for Claims projects than is the case projects Failing to give appropriate indications of Failing cooperation by associated firms or individuals cooperation Implying engineering responsibility for Implying proprietary designs or products proprietary Belittling another firm;s products Exaggerating performance claims Illustrating portions of a project/product for which Illustrating you have no responsibility you ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2010-I-01 2-105 Unit 2 Ethics Engineering Competence Must know your areas of competence s Can claim if you can reasonably expect to Can gain that competency in a course or through research in a reasonable amount of time research s Be very careful! s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-106 Unit 2 Ethics Use of the Seal Mandatory for a P.Eng s Would be used here in final documents of Would the life cycle process such as requirements, detailed design documents, testing plans etc detailed s MUST be signed and dated s Preliminary docs are not signed but they Preliminary must be clearly marked as preliminary. must s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-107 Unit 2 Ethics Confidentiality Note the potential conflict here between Note employer and client/people employer s Note problem of going to work for a Note competitor still possessing “trade secrets” competitor s Problem of environmental issues s 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-108 Unit 2 Ethics Conflict of Interest s Covered already 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-109 Unit 2 Ethics The Duty to Society s done 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-110 Unit 2 Ethics 2.10 FIDEC Code of Ethics (consulting engineers) s Responsibility to Society and the Consulting Industry x x x Must accept this responsibility Must seek solutions that are compatible with sustainable development Must at all times uphold the dignity, standing and reputation of the CI Must maintain knowledge and skills at levels consistent with Must development in technology, legislation and management and apply due skill, care and diligence in the services rendered to the client skill, Must perform services only when competent to perform them s Competence x x Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-111 Unit 2 Ethics FIDEC cont. s Integrity x Must act at all times in the legitimate interest of the client and Must provide all services with integrity and faithfulness provide Must be impartial in the provision of professional advice, Must judgement or decision judgement Must inform the client of any potential conflict of interest that Must might arise in the performance of services to the client might Must not accept remuneration which prejudices independent Must judgement judgement s Impartiality x x x 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-112 Unit 2 Ethics Mo’ FIDEEC s Impartiality x x x Must be impartial in the provision of professional Must advice, judgement or decision advice, Must inform the client of any potential conflict of Must interest that might arise in the performance of services to the client to Must not accept remuneration which prejudices Must independent judgement independent 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-113 Unit 2 Ethics FIDEC cont s Fairness to others x x x x x Must promote the concept of Quality-Based Selection (QBS) Must neither carelessly nor intentionally do anything to injure the Must reputation or business of others reputation Must neither directly or indirectly attempt to take the place of Must another consulting engineer already appointed for specific work another Must not take over the work of another consulting engineering Must before notifying the consulting engineer in questions, and without being advised in writing by the client of the termination of the prior appointment for the work prior In the event of being asked to review the work of another, must In behave in accordance with appropriate conduct and courtesy behave 2010-I-01 ©Dr. Michael Bennett Ethics, Law and Professionalism Winter 2010 2-114 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/18/2010 for the course MATH 2860 taught by Professor Dhavidhe during the Spring '10 term at UOIT.

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