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Comparative Politics

Comparative Politics - CO MPARAT I V E POL I T I CS 8/27 T...

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C OMPARATIVE P OLITICS 8/27- T HEMES Q UEST IONS A NSWERS M ET HODS -D EMOCRACY -C ONCEPTS - Q UAL ITAT IVE -P ROSPER I TY -H YPOT HESIS -Q UANT ITAT IVE -O RDER - T H EOR IES - F OR MAL -M ATHEMAT ICAL B IG Q UESTIONS -W HY ARE SOME SOC IET I ES RULED BY DEMOCRAT IC REGI M ES AND OT HERS RULED BY D ICTATORSH IPS - W HY ARE SOME SOCIET IES CAPABLE OF H IG H STANDARDS OF L IV ING FOR LARGE SEGMENTS AND OT HER I M POVER ISHED WIT H U NEQUAL OPPORTUN IT IES - W HY ARE SOME SOCIET IES CIV IL AND WELL ORDERED AND OT HERS CONFL ICTED A NSWERS C ONCEPTS : - DEF IN I T IONS OF ABSTRACT ENT IT IES - RULES FOR I D ENT IFY ING I NSTANCES OF T HESE ENT I T I ES H YPOTHESES : - SPECI F IC CAUSE - EFFECT CLA IMS - D IRECTLY TESTABLE T H EOR IES : - ABSTRACT CLA IMS ABOUT GENERAL CASUAL RELAT IONSH IPS
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- ASSUMPT IONS ABOUT H U MAN NATURE OF SOC IAL REAL I TY - I N D I RECTLY TESTABLE M ETHODS Q UAL ITATIVE : - NARRAT IVE ACCOUNTS OF I N I T IAL COND I T IONS / EVENTS / PROCESSES - CASUAL I N FERENCE VIA SEQUENCE OF EVENTS , T I M I NG OF EVENTS Q UANT ITAT IVE : - CASUAL ANALYSIS * NOT PURELY DESCR IPT IVE - DESCR IPT IVE ACCURACY ESSENT IAL * MOT IVATED BY NOR MAT IVE CONCERNS BUT EVALUATED BY T HOSE CONCERNS * I DENT IFY T HE SET OF I N I T IAL COND I T IONS AND MEC HAN ISMS T HAT PRODUCE AN OUTCOME * BASIS FOR RESPONSIBLE I N TERVENT ION R IVAL T HEORIES CULTURE THEORY VS . P OWER T H EORY -S OC IAL OUTCOMES PRODUCED - SOC IAL OUTCOMES PRODUCE BY GOAL - BY VALUES , NOR MS , BEL IEFS , CUSTOMS OR IEN TED STRATEGIC ACTORS WIT H VARYING COM MAND OF POWER RESOURCES
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9/1 C OMPARATIVE P OLITICS W HAT IS A CAUSAL RELATIONSH IP - T O CLA I M FACTOR X CAUSES OUTCOME Y M EANS OBSERVABLE ( EM P IR ICAL ) ASSOC IAT IONS BETWEEN T HE I N DEPENDENT VAR IABLE AND DEPENDENT VAR IABLE STATIST ICAL ANALYSIS QUANT IF IES RELAT IONSH IPS AS CORRE LAT ION I D ENT I F ICATION OF A MEC HAN ISM L IN K I NG X AND Y S UCH T HAT I N TERVEN T ION TO MA N I PU LATE X ALTERS Y
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- E MP IR ICAL R ELATIONSH IPS - OBSERVE * X AND Y APPEAR ( OFTEN , REGULAR , ETC ) TOGET HER * W HEN X IS ABSENT , Y IS A BSENT * W HEN AN ATTR IB UTE OF TRA IT OF X CHANGES , T HE SAME HAPPENS FOR Y * W HEN T HE QUANT I TY OF X I NCREASES OR DECREASES , SO DOES T HE QUANT I TY OF Y *N OTE T HAT SOME RELAT IONSH IPS ARE DETERM I N IST IC , ( MOST ) OT HERS ARE PROBABIL IST IC . -B IVARIATE C ORRELATION - F OR EACH UNIT , MEASURE VALUE OF X AND OF Y. -E ACH UNIT NOW CORRESPONDS TO THE ORDERED PAIR ( X , Y ). -P LOT EACH ORDERED PAIR ON A C ARTESIAN GRID . -I F THE POINTS ARE TIGHTLY BUNCHED TOGETHER ALONG A LINE , THE TWO VARIABLES ARE HIGHLY CORRELATED . -I F THE POINTS FORM A CLOUD THEY ARE SCATTERED IN ALL FOUR QUADRANTS OF THE C ARTESIAN GRID --- THE TWO VARIABLES ARE WEAKLY CORRELATED OR EVEN UNCORRELATED . -C ORRELATIONS RANGE ON THE REAL NUMBER LINE BETWEEN (-1,1) -1 MEANS A VERY STRONG NEGATIVE CORRELATION 1 MEANS A VERY STRONG POSITIVE CORRELATION 0 MEANS NO CORRELATION - C AUSAL M ECHANISM -S EQUENCE OF EVENTS OR PROCESSES THAT PROPAGATE CAUSAL INFLUENCES AND PRODUCE EFFECT .
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- N OTE THAT MECHANISMS CONTAIN THEORETICAL STATEMENTS ABOUT CAUSAL
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