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Important readings

Important readings - Important readings 8/24 FULLER...

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Important readings 8/24 FULLER: constraints on Russian government due to the factors surrounding its creation and Russia's expansion - military power had such an influence in the creation of the empire- fate of russian constantly determined by the military's successes and defeats - absorbed millions of different ethnic and religious minorities- had to be worried about protecting its borders as well as guarding against an internal insurrection - summary: Russian leaders always saw empire building as main purpose of military power, but after the Crimean defeat, Russian policy shifted towards trying to maintain what they already had *ZUBOK: REV. PARADIGM (336-344 ) 337- Stalin's successors- war with the US not inevitable- create a "new foreign policy" to reduce tension / create peaceful coesxistence, however, Soviet leaders and elites continued to suscribe to R-I paradigm! 338- Khruschev's attempts to de-Stalinize put the USSR in a better global position, but his continued belief in R-I paradigm kept pushing him to test West will (in Africa, L. America, Cuban Missile Crisis)- couldn't let ideology go 340- Detente produced the first cracks in paradigm- only military and other hardliners remained stalinist- other areas of society supported open trade and economic ties with the west- beginning of the end for the R-I paradigm! 8/26 FULLER - connection of military means and political ends -The empire was built through conquest and warfare -Russian collapse due to defeat in Crimea 54-56 and Manchuria in 1904-5 foreshadowed the debacle of WWI which was instrumental to the Russian revolution -Neither rise nor fall was inevitable, both were dependent on the results of wars – not macrohistorical forces or economics , it is also incorrect to depict Russia as eternally aggressive -historically- The root cause was the poverty of the state – did not have the military might to sport strategy- in 1600/1700s- Narva debacle." Because of the incompetence of his army, Peter realized reforms were needed to be victorious in the Great Northern War against the Swedes. After altering his military, gaining more funds, -The key here was simultaneously expanding the pool of available taxpayers while increasing the tax burden generally." (57). Peter realized he needed wealth in order to be efficient. "A second important feature of Peter's strategic approach was attempt to coordinate military action and diplomacy." HILL: Siberian Curse temperature and geography have created boundaries that must be overcome. WESSON- Russian Dilemma - Soviet Union- advanced industrial nation but yet, different economic and political conditions than Tsarists: Strategic Location (b/t Europe & Asia) Geographical & culture- assimilate so that they are ahead of “backward” neighbors Mixed population caused anxiety ;Never attacked a major power- always expanded into areas of weakness Defensive > offensive
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Imperialism- swelling of the state not the acquisition of possessions Tartars- brought absolutism to Russia Excellence was war; Force & conquest
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