Quantitative_Chemistry_2

Quantitative_Chemistry_2 - IB Chemistry UNIT 1 Quantitative...

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Quantitative Chemistry IB Chemistry UNIT 1 Standard and Higher Levels
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You Will: Revise basic concepts from Gen. Chem. Practice balancing chemical equations Know how to calculate empirical formulae from mass data etc….
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Basic Concepts Element – substance made from only one type of atom Compound – atoms of two or more different elements chemically joined Molecule – Two or more atoms chemically joined together
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Chemical Formulae CuCO 3 1 molecule of the compound copper carbonate 1 atom of copper 1 atom of carbon 3 atoms of oxygen
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Chemical Formulae 2 CuCO 3 2 molecules of the compound copper carbonate 2 atoms of copper 2 atoms of carbon 6 atoms of oxygen When balancing chemical equations you can only change the number in front of the formula, otherwise you are changing the chemical structure!
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What are some properties of Chemical Reactions? A new substance is always formed. Reactant bonds break and product bonds form resulting in an energy change between the rxn system and its surrounds. The number of each type of atom remains constant throughout the reaction (Law of Conservation of Mass).
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Balancing Equations There must be the same number of each type of atom on each side of the equation. Chemical Equations CaCO 3 (s) + HNO 3 (aq) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) reactants products State Symbols : ( s ) solid; ( l ) liquid; ( g ) gas; ( aq ) aqueous 2
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Examples To Try H 2 + O 2 H 2 O • K 2 CO 3 + HCl KCl + H 2 O + CO 2 NH 4 NO 3 N 2 O + H 2 O • N 2 + H 2 NH 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3
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Writing Ionic Equations Most Ionic Compounds completely dissociate in solution. Since this is the case, a net ionic equation is written to better indicate which species take part in the reaction. AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) Ag +1 (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na +1 (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) + Na +1 + NO3 - (aq) Ag +1 (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) Net Ionic Equations Ionic Equation
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Simple Salt Solubility Rules • Always Soluble – salts of Na + , K + , NH 4 + , and NO 3 - . • Usually Soluble – salts of Cl - and SO 4 2- , but salts of AgCl, PbCl 2 , PbSO 4 and BaSO 4 are insoluble. • Usually Insoluble – salts of OH - , O 2- , CO 3 2 , and PO 4 3- , but Na + , K + , and NH 4 + salts are soluble. • Ca(OH) 2 and CaSO 4 are slightly soluble.
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Using Chemical Equations Limiting and Excess Reagents Example What is the maximum volume of ammonia gas (measured at 273K and 101.3 kPa) that could be obtained from the reaction between 10.0g of hydrogen and 30.0g of nitrogen? If the actual amount of ammonia obtained is 7.05dm 3 , calculate the % yield for the reaction.
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Step 1. Write the equation for the reaction. 3H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Step 2. Determine the Limiting and Excess Reagent. Calc,
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Quantitative_Chemistry_2 - IB Chemistry UNIT 1 Quantitative...

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