conjunctiva (eye), respiratory, gastrointestinal (food, water, fingers),
genitourinary, hair follicles, sweat glands, inoculation through skin, bites, injections,
surface molecules on pathogen called adhesins (located on glycocalyx,
pili, fimbriae, flagella) . Adhesins attach to
receptors on host cells
Communities of microbes can be attached to living and nonliving surfaces (teeth,
catheters, stents, heart valves, contact lenses)
Capsules, cell wall,enzymes
1. using host’s nutrients
iron is required in most pathogenic bacteria.
However, iron is bound to proteins.
Bacteria carry siderophores that are released from medium and take iron away from
causing rupture of cells
by producing toxins
(exotoxins, endotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins)
toxins can produce fever, cardio, shock, diarrhea, destroy blood vessels/cells, disrupt
: cause symptoms in minute amounts, they are proteins produced as part of
metabolism and secreted by bacterium into surrounding medium or released after lysis.
The toxins cause destruction of host cell parts or can inhibit metabolic reactions.
can produce antibodies to toxins.
1. A-B exotoxins
(A is the enzyme component, B is the binding component)
2.Membrane disrupting toxins
form channels in cell membrane or disrupt
Ex staph and strep toxins