lecture_5_oct_7

lecture_5_oct_7 - Overview of Coastal Marine Habitats...

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1 Overview of Coastal Marine Habitats Readings: Levinton Chapters 2: pp. 38-43, Required reading: Lotze, et al. 2006. Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science 312:1806- 1809. Supplemental readings: Day, et al. 2007. Restoration of the Mississippi delta: Lessons from hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Science 315:1679-1684. Aburto et al. 2008. Mangroves in the Gulf of California increase fishery yields. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105:10456-10459 Coastal Zones - margins of continents and islands Important for many reasons Highly productive Support many important fisheries Often adjacent to dense human populations Support high biodiversity Coastal habitats Intertidal Soft substrates Salt marshes Mangroves Rocky shores (later) Subtidal Soft substrates Seagrass beds Coral reefs Rocky reefs (later) Deeper substrates - continental shelf Coastal Habitats: Tidal effects Levinton 2009
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2 Coastal Habitats: Tidal effects Wave action - little to no effect on offshore (deep) bottom Levinton 2009 Coastal Habitats: Waves obviously have significant effects at shorelines Koehl 2006 Sandy shorelines are dominated by infauna (organisms that live within sediment) Epifauna less common (mobile) Infauna exhibit clear zonation: - abundance and occurrence of species changes as one moves up or down the shore that are affected by: Exposure to waves Levinton 2009
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3 Meiofauna - community of infaunal organisms that live in the spaces between sediment particles Variety of taxonomic groups present: protozoans, nematodes, Karleskint et al 2010 Sandy shores - sediment somewhat buffered from water (and air) above -water persists between sand grains -surface affected by changes above, but this does extend very far down (affected by tidal height, pore size, waves etc.) Levinton 2009 Upper layers of sediment contain oxygen aerobic bacteria infauna present Lower layers lack oxygen hydrogen sulfide anaerobic bacteria infauna reduced or absent Levinton 2009 Levinton 2009 Depth zonation within sediment Levinton 2009
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4 Predators forage at different depths in sediment frequent few none Permanent burrows high moderate low Organic matter small intermediate large Particle size low moderate high Oxygen levels extensive various narrow Width flat gradual steep Slope none low high Wave action Very Protected Protected Exposed Characteristics of sandy shores vary with wave exposure After Karleskint et al 2010 Characteristics of sandy shores vary with wave exposure Photos: P. Hastings Karleskint et al 2010 Mudflats - aerobic sediment shallow burrowing animals common
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5 Forms extensive, often single species stands; many roles: highly productive, sediment stabilization, nursery areas perennial; sexual reproduction via form variable: highly
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lecture_5_oct_7 - Overview of Coastal Marine Habitats...

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