01036811.pdf - 1154 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS VOL 49 NO 5 OCTOBER 2002 A High-Torque Low-Speed Multiphase Brushless Machine\u2014A

01036811.pdf - 1154 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL...

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1154 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 49, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2002 A High-Torque Low-Speed Multiphase Brushless Machine—A Perspective Application for Electric Vehicles Marcelo Godoy Simões , Senior Member, IEEE, and Petronio Vieira, Jr. , Associate Member, IEEE Abstract— This paper presents the design, analysis, simulation, and modeling of a high-torque low-speed multiphase permanent- magnet brushless machine. The machine fits an in-wheel motor ar- rangement to be used for electric vehicle applications. This paper presents issues regarding the high-level modeling comprised of a transient model in conjunction with their corresponding experi- mental evaluation. Analysis was made to combine the modeling efforts with the expected behavior concerned with mutual induc- tance and armature reaction effects, so as to have realistic simu- lation results verified by the experimental setup. Comprehensive experimental results corroborate the work. Index Terms— Brushless machines, digital signal processors, electric machines, modeling, motor drives. I. I NTRODUCTION E LECTRIC vehicle (EV) propulsion systems have being historically driven by two distinct threads, because there are basically two ways to achieve high power density and high- efficiency drives. The first way is to employ high-speed motors, so that motor volume and weight will then be greatly reduced at the same rated output power. However, mechanical losses are incurred by the clutch, reduction, and differential gear during power transmission from the motor to the wheels. Increasing the motor speed may reduce the size and weight of the electric motor, but the corresponding values for the mechanical gearbox are likely to grow. The second thread for propulsion is to em- ploy high-torque low-speed motors, which can directly drive the wheels [1], [2] . One standard solution is to connect a machine outside the hub so as to avoid unsprung mass effects on the sus- pension system. A high-torque low-speed in-wheel motor may be implemented in several topologies, but permanent-magnet brushless (PMB) machines are preferable due to the higher ef- ficiency. This paper describes the design of a PMB direct-driven wheel motor drive system comprising a multiphase multipole topology controller. It presents the high-level modeling, where a general dynamic model for a multiphase PMB, in conjunction with the corresponding inverter, is used to simulate the system. Exper- imentation and static evaluation were sought to fully comple- ment the equation parameters. Manuscript received December 14, 2000; revised May 9, 2002. Abstract pub- lished on the Internet July 15, 2002. M. G. Simões is with the Engineering Division, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401-1887 USA. P. Vieira, Jr., is with the the Computer and Electrical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-900 Belém, Brazil. Publisher Item Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2002.803241.

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