1004.Chap7

1004.Chap7 - Chapter 7, Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7, Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity The U.S.: A Nation of Immigrants U.S. citizens trace their ancestors to many different nations. A melting pot? A salad? A stew? Ethnic groups Ethnic groups are identified based on cultural characteristics – e.g., language, religion, national origin Racial groups A racial group is a category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that are defined as socially significant. Not scientifically valid, but socially significant. Minority groups A category of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment. Minority groups Experience discrimination, segregation, oppression, or persecution. Group members have a consciousness of one-ness, a sense of identity. Membership generally is not voluntary. Members usually marry within their own group (endogamy). This may be imposed by the dominant group. Hate crimes A criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin.” Motivations for hate crimes 52% race 19% religion 15% sexual orientation 13% ethnicity/nationality 1% disability An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal, 1944 Jim Crow laws Laws that required different treatment of individuals based on racial differences What was: Plessy v. Ferguson? Brown v. Board of Education? “Massive resistance”? Massive resistance Governor vowed to resist Brown v Board of Education VA legislature facilitated the closing of public schools January 19, 1959: 2 cases in VA affirming that VA had to follow “Brown” Massive resistance continued in Prince Edward County (Farmville) Desegregation and resegregation In the South In 1964, 2% in majority white In 1988, 44% in majority white In 2000, 31% in majority white Nationally, 1989-90, 31% of average black student’s classmates were white 1999-2000, dropped to 26% Civil rights legislation Civil Rights Act, 1964 Voting Rights Act, 1965 Fair Housing Act, 1968 “True Colors” “Blacks and Ex-Cons Need Not Apply” Devah Pager, 2001 (2003) How race and criminal record affect employers’ responses toward job applicants Audit study Percent of job applicants called back C r i m i n a l Black White 17 R e c o r d Yes 5 No Number of Applications 14 200 34 150 Racial discrimination in hiring 5000 fake resumes sent to 1300 employers Half with “stereotypically black names”, half with “stereotypically white names” White name: Call back on 1 in 10 Black name: Call back on 1 in 15 Definition of discrimination “Actions or practices carried out by members of a dominant group, or their representatives, that have a differential and harmful impact on members of a subordinate group.” Types of discrimination Isolate discrimination Small group discrimination Direct institutionalized discrimination Indirect institutionalized discrimination Indirect institutionalized discrimination Sentencing for cocaine Seniority Organ transplants “Legacies” in college admissions Median Household Income by Race and Year 1970 White 35,353 Black 21,518 Black as % 61% of White 1999 44,366 27,910 63% 2007 52,115 33,916 65% Black family income as % of white family income: A slightly longer time frame 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 "70" "80" "90" "00" "05" % Median Weekly Earnings of Full-time Workers Age 25+ (2007) Education All HS dropout HS grad Some College Bachelor’s Master’s White $759 437 624 729 1010 1248 Black $596 400 504 594 815 1046 B as % W 79 91 81 81 81 84 Wealth inequality Wealth quintile Percent of total personal wealth this quintile has 83% 12% 4% 1% 0% [Actually -.12] Top 20% Second 20% Middle 20% Fourth 20% Bottom 20% Racial and Ethnic Inequalities in Wealth (Median Household Wealth, 2002) White: $88,000 (+17%) Hispanic: $7900 (+14%) Black: $6000 (-16%) (Second column is change from 19962002.) Conditions of Black Americans versus White Americans Family income about 63% Income of full-time workers about 80% For men, about 74% Unemployment rate about two times Poverty rate about three times (22% Black, 8% White) Wealth: 14X less (7%) Infant Mortality Rate about two times Black men 7X as likely to be in prison Affirmative action Taking definite steps to improve the condition of groups that had historically been excluded from full participation in U.S. society. Minorities Women Conditions of Black Americans versus White Americans Family income about 63% Income of full-time workers about 80% For men, about 74% Unemployment rate about two times Poverty rate about three times (22% Black, 8% White) Wealth: 14X less (7%) Infant Mortality Rate about two times Black men 7X as likely to be in prison ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/21/2010 for the course ACCT 312 taught by Professor A during the Spring '10 term at VCU.

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1004.Chap7 - Chapter 7, Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity...

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