F10_L05_synapse

F10_L05_synapse - Psy 111 Basic concepts in Biopsychology...

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Psy 111 Basic concepts in Biopsychology Lecture 5: Synaptic Transmission
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Objectives ± Describe the parts of the neuron involved in chemical synaptic transmission and the specializations in these parts. ± Describe the general processes that occur presynaptically. ± Generation and storage of neurotransmitter. ± Conversion of action potential into neurotransmitter release. ± Role of Ca++ in exocytosis. ± Identify the different types of post-synaptic responses to neurotransmission, including electrical synapses. ± Describe factors determining the strength of postsynaptic potentials, including the role of driving force (particularly for Na+ and K+ channels) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. ± Discuss integration of postsynaptic potentials including connection between site of synapse and its strength. ± Describe metabotropic receptors with emphasis on G-protein systems. ± Identify components of the cAMP and IP3/DAG messenger systems. ± Discuss factors which lead to termination of neurotransmission.
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Ion Channels in APs Rest: open K+ channels (not voltage-gated) Rise: open Na+ channels (voltage-gated) Fall: open K+ channels (voltage-gated) Rest: open K+ channels (not voltage-gated) -65 mV -65 mV -65 mV -80 mV -65 mV Q: What would happen to the action potential without the voltage-gated K+ channels?
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Conduction by Na + Channels Na + + Soma Hillock Axon Generator Potential Need ~10 mV input to reach threshold But where does this come from? But where does this end up?
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Compartmentalization Dendrites = input Body = protein production Initial Segment = integration Axon = conduction Terminal = output Output of a neuron is based on chemical transmission which turns the electrical signal (frequency of APs) into chemical signal (amount of transmitter released).
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Electrical synapses *fast, reliable connection between cells -coupling of glia (common) -coupling of neurons (rare) Gap Junction - Adjacent cells have inter-connected channel allowing transfer of ionic currents. ¾ Electrical coupling of cells. ¾ Junctions can be gated.
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Chemical Synapses Axon terminal responds to incoming action potential by releasing chemical neurotransmitter which detect by dendrites; i.e. convert electrical into chemical signal. Presynaptic cell Postsynaptic Cell Synaptic cleft
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Presynaptic Activity: NT synthesis, storage, & Exocytosis Proteins for synthesis, storage and release of neurotransmitters are generated in soma and transported to axon terminal.
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NT Release: (pre-)Exocytosis Where the vesicles are… ±V e s i c l e s c o n t a i n i n g n e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r s * are transported to axon terminal via the cytoskeleton (fast axonal transport). ± Cytoskeleton links to “docking proteins” ± Vesicles are transferred to docking proteins and are ready for release.
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This note was uploaded on 10/19/2010 for the course PSYCH psych 111 taught by Professor Kippin,t during the Fall '10 term at UCSB.

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F10_L05_synapse - Psy 111 Basic concepts in Biopsychology...

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