Interior_Routing_Protocols_and_High_Availability_Student_Guide_v1-2.pdf - Module 0 \u2014 Introduction Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability

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Unformatted text preview: Module 0 — Introduction Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 0 – page 1 Module Objectives Course timeline Course objectives Course prerequisites Course introduction Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 0 | 2 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability This course is part of the Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Certification (SRC) Program. For more information on the the SRC program, see To locate additional information relating to the topics presented in this manual, refer to the following: ƒ Technical Practices for the specific product ƒ Internet Standards documentation such as protocol standards bodies, RFCs, and IETF drafts ƒ Technical support pages of the Alcatel-Lucent website located at: Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Module 0 – page 2 Course Timeline y Module 0 – Course Introduction y Module 1 – Basic Networking Review y Module 2 – Static Routing and Default Routes ƒ Day 2 y Module 3 – Routing Information Protocol y Module 4 – Link-State Protocols ƒ Day 3 y Module 5 – Open Shortest Path First Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 3 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ Day 1 Module 0 – page 3 Course Timeline (continued) y Module 5 – Open Shortest Path First (continued) y Module 6 – Intermediate System–to–Intermediate System ƒ Day 5 y Module 7 – Filters and Policies y Module 8 – IPv6 Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 4 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ Day 4 Module 0 – page 4 Course Objectives Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 5 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute After successful completion of this course, you should be familiar with: ƒ Review of basic networking concepts and terms ƒ The details of the protocol operation of RIP ƒ Implementing RIP in an Alcatel-Lucent environment ƒ The details of the protocol operation of IS-IS ƒ Implementing IS-IS in an Alcatel-Lucent environment ƒ The details of the protocol operation of OSPF ƒ Implementing OSPF in an Alcatel-Lucent environment ƒ The details and operation of router redundancy ƒ Implementing router redundancy in an Alcatel-Lucent environment Module 0 – page 5 Course Objectives (continued) Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 6 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ The details and operation of filters ƒ Implementing filters in an Alcatel-Lucent environment ƒ The basic ideas and concepts of IPv6 Module 0 – page 6 Course Prerequisites and Follow-On y To fully appreciate the concepts presented in this course, it is strongly recommended that the Alcatel-Lucent Scalable IP Networks course have already been taken. ƒ Suggested follow-on courses y Based on the material covered in this course, it is recommended that the this course be followed with the Border Gateway Protocol course. ƒ Alcatel-Lucent IGP exam y To ensure full comprehension of the material covered in this course, it is recommended that the student register for and take the Alcatel-Lucent IGP exam following successful completion of this course. Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 7 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ Suggested prerequisites Module 0 – page 7 Course Introduction Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 8 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ Provide the participants with a foundation knowledge of interior routing protocols and their implementation in an Alcatel-Lucent environment. Module 0 – page 8 Administration Registration Facility information Restrooms Communications Materials Schedule Introductions y Name and company y Experience y Familiarity with IGP ƒ Questions Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 9 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Module 0 – page 9 Graphical Symbols and Icons Customer site 2 Workstation Customer site 1 Pipe Service Or tunnel Generic Router/CE Network Cloud User Switch 10.1.1.1 Command Syntax display CLI Syntax: config>service# epipe service-id [customer customer-id] [vpn vpn-id] description description-string no shutdown MTU Prefix Origin AS Path next-hop Routing Update (showing attribute) Physical link Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Module 0 | 10 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Server Module 0 – page 10 3HE-02771-AAAA-WBZZA Edition 01 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Module 1 — Basic Networking Review Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability [AIRP] Module 1 - page1 Module Objectives y OSI model and network layering y Network topologies y Forwarding of IP datagrams y IP addressing ƒ Introduction to IP Routing y Review of IP forwarding y Control plane vs. data plane functions y Common Layer 3 Routing Protocols y Subnetting y Private IP addresses Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 2 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability This course is part of the Alcatel-Lucent Service Routing Certification (SRC) Program. For more information on the the SRC program, see To locate additional information relating to the topics presented in this manual, refer to the following: ƒ Technical Practices for the specific product ƒ Internet Standards documentation such as protocol standards bodies, RFCs, and IETF drafts ƒ Technical support pages of the Alcatel-Lucent website located at: Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute After completion of this module, you should understand: ƒ Network and addressing review Module 1 - page2 Section 1 — Network and Addressing Review Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Basic Networking Review Module 1 - page3 Section Objectives y OSI model and network layering y Layer 2 addressing y Network topologies y Forwarding of IP datagrams y IP addressing y IP subnetting Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 4 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Section 1 — Networking and Addressing Review This section provides an overall review of networking fundamentals. In this section, students will review the OSI model, basic network flow, and flow of a packet through an Alcatel-Lucent 7750 SR chassis. The section will also review concepts relating to classful and classless protocols and the differences between distance vector and link-state protocols. These concepts are a necessary prerequisite to the discussion on routing protocols that will follow. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute ƒ Network and addressing review Module 1 - page4 OSI Model Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 5 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent ISO has created a template of network functions to describe the complexities of networking and to have a basis by which to compare different networks. This template is called the OSI model. The OSI model defines seven different layers. Each layer provides services to the layer above it and in turn requests services from the layer below it. The benefits of using the OSI model are numerous, including: ƒ The complexity of network design is eased by breaking each operation down into specific functions. ƒ Design engineers can focus on specific functions and layers rather than the overall movement of data. ƒ Because each layer performs a specific function, different vendors can create different layer devices and applications that will coexist. The Networked OSI Model Each layer of the OSI model is designed to communicate with its peer layer. Each layer requests services from the layer below it and honors requests from the layer above. No layer can bypass another layer. For example, the session layer cannot go directly to the network layer, bypassing the transport layer. Instead, the session layer must go through the transport layer to get to the network layer. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Application Module 1 - page5 OSI Model — Encapsulation Presentation Session Transport Segments Network Packets Data Link Frames Physical Bits Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 6 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Application, Presentation and Session Layers These layers are generally not a concern to network engineers because they usually reside on the end devices and not in the network equipment that moves the data. The application layer provides an interface for the networked application to access lower-layer communication services. There must be a unique interface for each end-user application (e.g., database, transaction processing, and file transfer). The presentation layer is responsible for converting application data into a common format for transmission and reversing the conversion for received data. It is here that code conversion, data compression, and encryption are performed for an application. Presentation defines syntax and context. The session layer is responsible for establishing and terminating data streams between end systems. It is responsible for coordinating connections between network applications. The control of the direction of data flow is also handled at this layer (one-way, two-way simultaneous, or two-way, one way at a time). Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for establishing and maintaining end-to-end connections between applications across the network. It insures that data is transferred correctly over the Internet and it provides reliable transfer with acknowledgments. The verification of the number of data packets sent and received is a function of this layer. Therefore, this layer may optionally provide error recovery for lost or mismatched data. The format of data at this layer and above is called a segment. This function is performed primarily in end systems (hosts). There is also a communication option at this layer that provides no reliability. There is no common network equipment used at this layer. However, routers have the capability to filter based on transport layer headers and the port numbers that are used in those headers. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Application Module 1 - page6 OSI Model — Addresses Presentation Session Transport Port numbers Network IP Address Data Link MAC or WAN address Physical Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 7 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Network Layer The network layer is responsible for formatting data into packets before passing them to the data link layer. It is also referred to as the routing layer. Protocols at this layer send packets over router-selected paths. The network layer’s primary function is routing, or moving traffic from one segment in a network to another segment (which could be a great distance away). The most common protocol in use today at this layer is IP. For hardware, the router is used at this layer. Data at this layer is called a packet. Data Link Layer The data link layer usually works closely with the physical layer; it describes how data is formatted and passed on to the physical layer for transmission. It also is responsible for error detection and possibly error correction. Data is formatted into characters, frames, or cells. In LANs the combinations of the link and physical layers usually define the standard, such as the very common 802.3 (Ethernet) standard. WANs at the link layer usually work independently from the physical layer. Examples include HDLC, frame relay, and PPP. Hardware at this layer includes NICs, switches, and bridges. Data at this layer is called a frame. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Application Module 1 - page7 OSI Model — Devices Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Routers Switches and bridges Cables, hubs, CSUs, modems Module 1 | 8 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent Physical Layer The physical layer is concerned with the mechanical and electrical procedures needed to represent data in the form of signals over a network. The physical layer defines the electrical and physical characteristics of the media. The universal name for data at this level is the bit stream. Common cabling standards such as V.35, RS-232, Cat 5, and Cat 6, define the type and number of wires within the cable as well as voltage and signal characteristics. In addition, some physical devices are modems, CSU/DSUs, regenerative repeaters, amplifiers, and hubs. Data at this layer is called bits. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute Application Module 1 - page8 TCP/IP Suite vs. OSI TCP/IP Suite Application Application Presentation Services Session Transport Transport Internet Network Protocol Data Link Network Interfaces Physical Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 9 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent The TCP/IP suite differs from the OSI model in that the TCP/IP suite uses four protocol layers and the OSI model uses seven layers. The slide above roughly shows the protocol layer relationship between the two models. Network Interfaces — This layer is used to define the interface between hosts and contains the functionality of both the physical and data link layer of the OSI model. Protocols such as Ethernet describe both the framing of data (layer 2) and the physical transmission of the frame over the media (layer 1). This layer is often referred to as layer 2 or L2 because it provides OSI layer 2-type services to the IP layer. Internet Protocol — The IP layer provides a universal and consistent forwarding service across a TCP/IP network. IP provides services comparable to the OSI network layer and is sometimes referred to as a layer 3 (or L3) protocol. The OSI protocol CLNP corresponds most closely to IP. Transport — The transport layer is made up of two main protocols, TCP and UDP. These transport protocols provide similar services to OSI transport protocols. TCP is very similar to the OSI transport protocol, TP4. TCP and UDP may be referred to as layer 4 protocols. Application Services — The application services provide end-user access to the Internet. Any of the services of the upper three OSI protocols that are required are incorporated into the application protocols. There are a number of Internet protocols that provide services similar to these OSI layers although they do not follow the layering or service definitions of OSI. For example, TLS provides session-like services to Internet applications and MIME provides presentation-like services to SMTP and HTTP. Application layer protocols are sometimes referred to as layer 7 protocols. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute OSI Module 1 - page9 Application Encapsulation From: [email protected] Application Message Body To: [email protected] Services Transport Internet Protocol Network Interfaces Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 10 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent When a network application wants to communicate with another application across the network, it must first prepare its data in the specific format defined by the protocol to be used by the receiving application. A specific protocol is used so that the receiving application will know how to interpret the data it receives. In the case of a mail message, the message consists of two parts, the message header and the body. The message header contains the sender’s and receiver’s addresses as well as other information such as the urgency of the message and the nature of the message body. The format of the header and the nature of the addresses is defined by the application protocol. In the case of a mail message, the protocol is SMTP. In addition to defining the format of the message, the protocol also specifies how the applications are expected to interact with each other, including the exchange of commands and the expected responses. To accomplish the transfer of the application’s data, the application uses the services of the transport layer. Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability v1.2 Alcatel-Lucent Confidential for internal use only -- Do Not Distribute TCP/IP Layers Module 1 - page10 Transport Encapsulation From: [email protected] Application Message Body To: [email protected] Services Source: Transport 1223 Header Message Body Body Destination: 25 Internet Protocol Network Interfaces Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability Module 1 | 11 All rights reserved © 2006-2007 Alcatel-Lucent The transport layer provides a service to transfer data between applications across a network. There are two transport protocols used on the Internet: TCP and UDP. For exchanging e-mail across the Internet, an e-mail application uses SMTP. SMTP uses TCP to accomplish the transfer. TCP provides a reliable transfer service so that the application does not have to be concerned about whether all data is properly transferred. UDP provides a simple, unreliable datagram delivery service (much like IP). TCP treats all application data as a simple byte stream, including both the message header and the message body. TCP accepts the application’s data and breaks it into segments for transmission across the network as required. To accomplish this reliable transfer, TCP packages the application data with a TCP header. On the receiving end of the connection, TCP removes the TCP header and reconstructs the application data stream exactly as it was received from the applicati...
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