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Px044t-F10_L02_cells_proteins

Px044t-F10_L02_cells_proteins - Psy 111/211 Basic concepts...

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Psy 111/211 Basic concepts in Biopsychology Lecture 2: Nervous System Cells and their Proteins
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Lecture Objectives Nervous System Overview Establish anatomical references for examining the brain and nervous system Distinguish between central and peripheral nervous system. Describe the basic organization of spinal cord and peripheral NS. Describe the basic functions of the hindbrain, midbrain, and basal forebrain. Describe the divisions of the cerebral cortex. Cells of the Nervous System Describe the major functions of the cells of the nervous system: neurons and glia. Describe the different parts of a neuron; define “compartmentalization”. Describe the structure and role of the cellular membrane and cytoskeleton. Identify the basic functions of mitochrondira, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. Protein Synthesis Describe the “dogma” of gene expression and the protein synthesis machinery common to all cells. Describe “transcription” and the mechanisms of its regulation. Describe “translation” and the mechanisms of its regulation. Describe post-translational processing and protein transport within the neuron.
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Levels of Analyses We can try to understand brain function and its relation to psychological processes at “multiple levels”. ¾ We can analyze behavior, ¾ activity in specific parts of the brain, ¾ the connections between these parts of the brain (systems), ¾ the relations between cells with individual parts of the brain, ¾ the activity of individual cells (e.g. neurons), ¾ the connections between cells (e.g. synapses), ¾ to the activity of individual molecules. Today, we will begin with a tour of the nervous system and then start a bottom-up approach to brain function.
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The Nervous System Overview Nervous system, particularly the brain, is tremendously complex and thus we have a great deal of rules organizing how we think it works... Let s start with an anatomical description.
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Finding your way around the nervous system: Anatomical References
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Planes of Sectioning. Coronal plane (mid)Sagittal Horizontal Coronal
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Major Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System- high density of neurons, encased in bone (protected). Peripheral Nervous System- neurons found in bundles nerves . These are easily distinguished anatomically but functionally they interact a lot!
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Spinal Cord Nerves (make up the PNS) are bundles of many fibers; each fiber is the axon of an individual neuron and enter/exit the spinal cord via the dorsal or ventral root. Vertebra = armor for spinal cord with nerves entering/exiting into between. Information (encoded in action potentials) travels up and down the spinal cord Axons of neurons form tracts carries: 1. commands from the brain to the muscles and organs 2. sensory information from the periphery to the brain.
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Dorsal is sensory; input Ventral is motor; output Spinal Cord & Nerves: interface of CNS & PNS Nerves contain axons for motor and sensory systems which split at the spinal cord to form dorsal and ventral roots.
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