Quotes - Quote: The Columbian Exchange, Old World Plants...

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Quote: In the long view of history, the greatest effect of the horse on the Indian was to enhance his ability to resist the advance of Europeans into the interiors of North and South America. Quote: “South of the Chaco the first Indians to become horsemen were those of that complex of Chilean tribes called the Araucanians. They were making use of the horse in warfare before 1600” Quote: The Goajiro would never have been able to handle such large herds if they had not received horses along with the cattle. The fact that it is a compliment of the first rank to describe a woman’s hair as being the color of a horse’s mane reflects their love of horses. The goajiro are the last surviving example of those trives of Indian centaurs whoe culrture was transformed and enriched by the horse. The Indians began by being terrified of the horse, and if the Spanish had their way, the Indians’ wish to keep as far away from horses as possible would have been granted. The Europeans were fully conscious of the advantage that the horse gave them over their American subjects, and so tried to prohibit Indian ownership or use of horses. But the prohibition always failed: Indians were needed as vaqueros. Indian allies were ineffective in war unless mounted; and avobe all the horses reproduced so fast and strayed beyond European control in such numbers that is soon became as easy for many Indians to acquire mounts as Spaniards. Both the horses and diseases moved through the virgin lands of America faster than did the people who had brought them to the New World.”
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Quote: “The history of this phenomenon is best known for Mexico, but there is sufficicient evidenct ot suggest that a similar sequence of events—expansion of livestock herds and then decline in the size and quality of the grasslands—occurred elsewhere, or at least began to occur elsewhere in the Americas in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The accounts of the earliest colonists indicate that the savannas of Central America today are much smaller than they were during Balboa’s lifetime. (Here the decline in the Indian population was probably more important than the spread of livestock.) No number of animals could bring the forest to the steppes of Rio de la Plata, but in the 1820’s Darwin found scores, perhaps hundreds, of square miles of Uruguay impenetrable because they were overgrown with the prickly Old World cardoon (Cynara cardunculus). “I doubt,” he said, “whether any case in on record of an invasion on so grand a scale of one plant over the aborigines.” Usually such invasions are so successful only if the
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Quotes - Quote: The Columbian Exchange, Old World Plants...

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