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PLANT BIOLOGY NOTES

PLANT BIOLOGY NOTES - THE PLANT CELL • STUCTURE • CELL...

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Unformatted text preview: THE PLANT CELL • STUCTURE • CELL WALL & PLASMA MEMBRANE ENCLOSING CYTOPLASM • ORGANELLES BOUND IN MEMBRANE IN CYTOPLASM MOVED AND SUPPORTED BY CYTOSKELETON • NUCLEUS CONTAINS DNA • LARGE VACUOLE CELL MEMBRANE • ENDOMEMBRANE - SYNTHESIS AND TRANSPORT • NUCLEUS SURROUNDED BY NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 1. PERINUCLER ER 2. CORTICAL ER MAY BE ROUGH OR SMOOTH (COATED WITH RIBOSOMES) • ER MATERIAL IS MODIFIED ANDSORTED IN THE GOLGI APPARATUS, TRAVELS TO PLASMA MEMBRANE AND VACUOLE IN VESTICELS • MITOCONDRIA GENERATE ENERGY (ATP) FROM STORED FOOD • CHLOROPLASTS CARRY OUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS CELL WALL • DYNAMIC METABOLIC STRUCTURE MADE OF CARBOHYDRATE • PLASMODESMATA INTERCONECT ADJOINING CELLS MEMBRANES BRIDGE CELL WALL • INSIDE PLASMA MEMBRANE = SYMPLAST • OUTSIDE PLASMA MEMBRANE = APOPLAST • APOPLAST = WATER PERMEABLE SPACE, HYDROPHYLIC MOLECULES ARE DISSOLVED. (WATER LOVING MOLECULES) CELL WALL STRUCTURE • PRIMARY CELL WALL MADE OF CELLULOSE • SOME SGRETHENING CELLS AND VASCULAR TISSUE DEVELOPE SECONDRY CELL WALL BETWEEN PRIMARY ANS PLASMA MEMBRANE. LIGNINS STRENGTHEN (WOOD) CELL WALL FUNCTION • ADHESION AND GROWTH AND FORMATION OF PLANT BODY • PRIMARY CELL WALLS HIGH STREGTH AND OPPOSE TURGOR • LIGNIFIED SECONDRY WALLS GIVE GREATER STRENGTH • BARRIER TO PATHOGENS AND HERBIVORY (ANIMALS) • PERMEABLE TO WATER AND SMALL MOLECULES • DYNAMIC NATURE PERMITS CELL EXPANSION AND GROWTH PLASMODESMATA • STRUCTURES MEMBRANES FROM ADJACENT CELLS CONNECT THROUGH PORE IN CELL WALL • LINK PLASMA MEMBRANES AND CYTOPLASM • PERMITS REGULAR TRANSPORT BETWEEN CELLS PLASTIDS AND MITOCONDRIA • ORGANELS BOUNDED BY 2 EXTERNAL MEMBRANES • PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHLOROPLASTS IN MESOPHYLL LAYER OF LEAVES AND CORTEX OF HERBACIOUS STEMS MITOCONDRIA • CONVERT CARBOHYDRATES STORED INTO HIGH ENERGY ATP MEMBRANES • HYDROPHOBIC(WATER REPELLING) REGION SOLUTES CANT PASS UNLESS THROUGH A MEMBRANE • MEMBRANE ORGANELLES: MITOCONDRIA CHLOROPLASTS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM GOLGI APPARATUS ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • FLATTENED SACS OR TUBES • SMOOTH = LIPID SYNTHESIS • ROUGH = PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • PROTIENS SYTHESISED ON ROUGH ER RIBOSOMES GOLGI APPARATUS • PROTIEN MODIFICATION, BEFORE TRANSPORTATION ELSWHERE THE PLASMA MEMBRANE • SINGLE MEMBRANE ROUND CYTOPLASM • REGULATES TURGIDITY BY OSMOSIS, CAUSING CYTOPLASM TO EXERT FORCE AGAINST CELL WALL • COMMUNICATING WITH OTHER CELLS THROUGH PLASMONDESMATA • TRANSPORTING NUTRIETS AND OTHER PRODUCTS • RESPOND TO HORMONES TO ALTER CELL FUNCTIONS • SECRETING MATERIALS • MAINTAINS IONIC HOMEOSTATIS OF CYTOPLASM THE TONOPLAST • SINGLE MEMBRANE ROUND VACUOLE • MAINTAINS IONIC HOMEOSTATIS OF THE CYTOPLASM • TRANSPORTS NUTRIENTS AND OTHER PRODUCTS CELL DIVISION THE CELL CYCLE • OCCURS IN MERISTEMS • MITOSIS - CHROMOSOMES REPLICATED , SORTED TWO NUCLEI • CYTOKINESIS - CELL WALL, CYTOPLASM, ORGANELLES DIVIDE • FOUR PHASES 1. G1- CELL ENLARGES ,NUCLEUS MIGRATES TO CENTER,...
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PLANT BIOLOGY NOTES - THE PLANT CELL • STUCTURE • CELL...

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