mmw4 midterm 1 review

mmw4 midterm 1 review - T e rms The Rise of the West Vale...

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Terms The Rise of the West? “Vale of tears” medieval fatalism - Made people regard this life as merely transient state of exile Theory of cultural diffusion - western culture was predestined to diffuse to the rest of the world, and pull the other cultures out of their static past and into the modern present. Denial of Coevalness - the west progresses in history, while the rest pivot in the same place Pax Mongolica – stabilizing effects of the conquests linking of the ‘world economies’ or networks. Increased rate and scope of contact – Chinese porcelain in Africa. Evidence of mass production. Case for pre-modern capitalism – pooled capital to distribute risk. Lots of private capital, not much state funds Polycentric Globalism – polycentric. The world was connected, not isolated. Theory of Contingency - idea that every phenomenon is conditioned by some early development Theory of Conjuncture - independent events that somehow collide or converge and change the course of history Mongol Conquests Physical extent of Mongol expansion – largest land empire in history China to the Middle east and western Russia Military strategies – no shame in retreat. Hunting tactics likie the nerge, draw the enemy close with a fake retreat and then encircle them and shoot them dead. Terror as a strategy of warfare – massacred those who opposed them. Impact of medieval climate change – significant warming trend from 800-1200 CE: greater amount of rainfall – allowed farmers to cultivate in more northerly areas – populations grew – nomads moved south: shrank the buffer zone between nomads and agriculturalists. Genghis Khan - The aggressive Mongol leader responsible for the increase and prosperity of the Mongol empire at its height. Outer frontier strategy - Nomads occasionally threatened sedentary societies with conquest. They did not want to rule them but only threatened as a way of extracting their wealth and resources.
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Jurchens in northern China - They did not give up like the sedentary agriculturalists did. They resisted. Mongols fought war of attrition. Northern china was devastated Khwarazam Shah in Iran – Killed a Mongol envoy, Mongols got mad and killed everyone. Ogodei Khan – wanted to turn northern China into pasture land Mongol tax farming - a tax on farms. Uighurs and Turks were the tax collectors. Impact of Mongol Empire (Political Integration, Cultural Cross-fertilization, Religious pluralism, Economic coherence) – adopted Chinese dynastic and imperial system. Greater extent and pace of cultural exchange. Facilitated spread of religious system, many holy men traveling around. Policy of religious tolerance. Provided secure and efficient infrastructure for trade (secured silk road, issued paper money, financed commercial ventures) Yuan Dynasty Khubilai Khan - The ruler of the Great Khanate in Mongolian heartland and in China. Grandson of Genghis Khan; his power in many ways was accidental.
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mmw4 midterm 1 review - T e rms The Rise of the West Vale...

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