History 040W Midterm Review

History 040W Midterm Review - - Absolutism o Balance of...

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Unformatted text preview: - Absolutism o Balance of power o Louis XIV—absolutist leader of France Performing royalty at Versailles • Versailles became a stage on which Louis XIV mesmerized his nobles into obedience by his performance of daily rituals and demonstrations of royalty o France’s leading nobles were required to live there for part of the year, blinding them to the possibility of disobedience, while raising their prestige though association • Louis XIV considered himself personally responsible for his subjects Wanted to concentrate royal power to produce domestic tranquility • 36 generalites His administrators collected taxes to support the army • Taille: land tax • Capitation: head tax Religious policies • Wanted religious unity in France • Vast majority of population Roman Catholic o Quietists: emphasized a personal relationship with God o Jansenism: held to an Augustinian doctrine of predestination o Huguenots: protestants Waged war against Huguenots • 1685—revocation of the Edict of Nantes which gave Protestants religious freedom Colbert and Royal Finance • The unification and centralization of France depended on a large increase of royal revenue • Jean Baptiste Colbert o Stricter taxation (25% 80%) o Income would increase if imports were reduced and exports were increased o Domestic industries o Improved infrastructure Wars • Absolutism a means to achieve glory at home through military victories abroad • Two main objectives: o Lessen the threat of the Habsburg empire o Promote dynastic interests of his family • 1678-9: Dutch war ends with Treaty of Nijmegen o In response to aggressions, William of Orange organizes the League of Augsburg to fight Louis 9 years war (1689-1697) • 1697: Peace of Ryswick o Compelled Louis XIV to return France’s recent gains o Recognized William of Orange as the new King of England • War of the Spanish Succession o League of Augsburg reflected the emergence of a new diplomatic goal: the preservation of the “balance of power” Proponents: England, United Provinces, Austria, Prussia o Louis XIV marries elder daughter of King Phillip IV of Spain, his younger daughter marries the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold of Austria 1690s: concern of Spanish succession to the throne o To avoid partition, arranged to pass the empire to a single heir Louis XIV younger grandson, Phillip of Anjou (Phillip V) Two conditions: • Phillip renounces his claim to the French throne • Must keep Spanish empire intact o However, Charles II dies, Louis XIV sent his troops into the Spanish Netherlands England, United Provinces, Austria and Prussia against France, Bavaria, and Spain • 1711: Charles VI becomes Austrian rule and Holy Roman Emperor, threatening to upset the balance of power o William and Mary o Two Treatises on Government—John Locke Inconveniences of state of nature outweigh its advantages individuals come together to form societies and surrender certain...
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2010 for the course HIST 040W taught by Professor Hughagnew during the Spring '08 term at GWU.

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History 040W Midterm Review - - Absolutism o Balance of...

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