Wayne 12,13,14

Wayne 12,13,14 - Chapter 12 Presidents have become chief...

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Chapter 12 Presidents have become chief policy makers. The president’s policy role is not an easy one, but it has been deemed to be critical for success, or at least perceived success. Franklin Roosevelt made serious moves to aid in the growth of the policy making agenda of the President. Moreover, when Congress was slow in acting or obstructionist in its response, presidents were expected to find other ways of fulfilling their policy promises. The Bureau of the Budget was originally established in 1921 to help the president prepare an annual budget and submit it to Congress. Of all the executive participants in the enrolled bill process, the OMB exercises the most influence on the president’s decision. Increasingly important coordination and clearance function of the OMB has been the review of executive orders prior to their promulgation by the president. Executive orders were higher between 1936 and 1952, but they have become more important despite there being less of them. They issue more orders at the beginning and ends of terms, when they are running for reelection, and when their popularity declines. Civil servants play a less important role in administrative decision making than they did when the White House was small and lacked its own policy staffs, and the Bureau of the Budget was smaller and less partisan. OMB’s decisions are final. Appeals to the president to reject these decisions are discouraged and end runs to Congress are prohibited. The first domestic policy office was organized by the White House in 1965 to coordinate Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program. Charged with staffing Johnson’s task forces and then reviewing their recommendations, the office developed policy initiatives and then converted them into a legislative format, an executive order, or a departmental regulation. In summary, domestic policy staffs have functioned since the Johnson administration. The size of these staffs has varied from a high of approximately eighty, at the end of Nixon’s first term, to about thirty to forty in other administrations. Presidents have either assumed a White house orientation in which their senior
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This note was uploaded on 10/23/2010 for the course PSC 116 taught by Professor Forrestmaltzman during the Fall '08 term at GWU.

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Wayne 12,13,14 - Chapter 12 Presidents have become chief...

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