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PHY7A Lecture8

# PHY7A Lecture8 - Thermodynamics State of a thermodynamic...

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Thermodynamics State of a thermodynamic system - The state of a thermodynamic system is determined by macroscopic variables like pressure (P), temperature (T), volume (V), internal energy (U), number of particles (N), and other things like entropy (S) that we will talk about later. These are all called “ state variables ”. We can only choose three of these state variables to independently control. Once we have chosen three of them and fixed their values then all the others are fully determined and we can’t change them without changing one of our three fixed variables. Equations of state let us calculate all other state variables from these three. Each point on the graph represents a specific equilibrium state. Notice: any function of state variables is also a state variable H = U + PV C V = dU/dT with V held constant C P = dH/dT with P held constant G = U - TS + PV

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The Thermodynamic model Our thermodynamic model has two pieces: 1) Energy is conserved in the interactions between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. You have already thought a lot about the energy transfers Q and W and the resulting changes in the internal energy, U, of our system (remember that U = E th + E bond so ! U = ! E th + ! E bond ). 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: total energy in the universe does not change ! U = Q + W 2) When a change is made, our system will settle into a new equilibrium state. Information about the equilibrium state is contained in a state variable called “entropy” (S). 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics: total entropy in the universe may increase but never decreases ! S ! Q/T The = sign refers to reversible processes (processes where our system is always in equilibrium). The > sign refers to irreversible processes (as our system comes to equil.)
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