28 - CHAPTER 28 The Age of Anxiety SELF-TEST MULTIPLE...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 28 The Age of Anxiety SELF-TEST MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Do not assu me that these questions will appear on any examination. It is recommended t hat you not memorize these qu esti ons, but u se them only as a self-test. Answers are at the end of thi s book. 1. The Bismarckian syst em of alliances was meant t o a. expand Germany’s borders. b. help German allies expand their borders. c. restrain Ru ssi a and Austria-Hungary and i solate France. d. encourage relations wit h France. e. draw Britain int o a war with France. 2. Which group of events is in correct chronological order? a. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e, the Ru ssi an-German Reinsurance Treaty, t he Alliance of the Three Emperors b. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e, the Alliance of the Three Emperors, the Ru ssi an-German Reinsurance Treaty c. The Ru ssi an-German Reinsurance Treaty, the Alliance of t he Three Emperors, t he Three Emperors’ Leagu e d. The Alliance of the Three Emperors, the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, the Three Emperors’ Leagu e e. The Ru ssi an-German Reinsurance Treaty, the Three Emperors’ Leagu e, t he Alliance of the Three Emperors 3. Which of the following strained German-British relations before the First World War? a. The Greek Revolution b. Anti-German senti ment in t he British royal family c. A German-French ent ente d. The German naval buildup e. British occupation of Belgiu m 4. The Schlieffen Plan called for Germany to knock ou t a. England by marching through France. b. Russia by marching through Poland. c. France by marching through Belgium. d. Belgium by marching t hrou gh France. e. Italy by marching t hrou gh Au stria. 5. Which of the following is u sually considered a cau se of t he First W orld War? a. British appeasement of t he Germans b. Nationalism c. Austria’s refusal to get int ervene in t he Balkans d. Germany deliberately st arting t he “Third Balkan W ar” e. German control over the int ernational alliance sy stem 6. Which of the following was a consequ ence of t he First W orld War? a. The weakening of socialism 7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. b. The exclusion of labor leaders and socialist s from government c. An i mmediat e surge in nationalist feeling d. The right t o vot e for women e. A wi dening of the gap bet ween rich and poor Which of the following was a central i dea of Lenin? a. Revoluti on cannot occur in a back ward country. b. Revoluti on is det ermined by an elite leadership. c. A broad-based democratic work ers’ party is necessary. d. The war against Germany must continue. e. Marx was correct in every detail. The end of the war in 1918 brought revolution to whi ch of t he following countries? a. Greece and Italy b. France and Britain c. Germany and Italy d. Germany and Au stria-Hungary e. France and It aly Which of the following was an accompli shment of t he peace conference at Versailles after the war? a. The divi sion of Germany into an East and W est Germany b. A defensive alliance in favor of France si gned by the United States and Britain c. The re-est ablishment of Ru ssian borders d. The reconciliati on of the German people to defeat e. The establishment of the principle of German reparations pay ments The phrase t hat best describes Bismarck’s attitude t oward German expansion after 1871 i s a. German control of Europe. b. the annexation of Austria-Hungary to Germany. c. a dangerous policy with little pot ential for gain. d. no territorial ambitions. e. a great German navy and German colonies. The you ng Emperor William II of Germany made t he fateful decision to reverse Bismarck’s forei gn policy by refusing t o renew the treaty bet ween Germany and a. Austria. b. Britain. c. France. d. Russia. e. all of the above. As a result of the Moroccan crisis, European powers viewed which of the following countries as a threat to peace and stability? a. France b. Germany c. Britain d. Libya e. Japan The countries with t he most at st ake in the Balk ans and that were most fearful of nationali sm were 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. a. Britain and Russia. h. Germany and Austria. c. France and Turkey. d. Turkey and Austri a. e. Russia and Germany. The first country t o mobilize in 1914 for general warfare was a. France. b. Germany. c. Russia. d. Britain. e. Italy. The chi ef feature of the war on t he west ern front was a. inconclusi ve battles fou ght in ceaseless trench warfare. b. the invasion of Germany by French and British troops. c. a series of German vict ories at the German-French border. d. const antly shifting battle lines. e. a propaganda war with little actual fighting. The major impact of W orld W ar Ion economic thought was the a. promotion of government planning and involvement in the economy. b. strengthening of capitalism based on laissez-faire pri nciples. c. reaffirmation of i mperi alism. d. general assu mption that little could be done t o avoi d economic downturns. e. proof that ci vilian populations were u nimportant to the war economy. For women in European society, the First World W ar brought about a. overall economic and political improvement. b. some economic gains but no political gains. c. a setback in t he stru ggle for women’s rights. d. a det eriorati on of their economic position. e. complete political enfranchisement throu ghout Europe. Petrograd Soviet’s Army Order No. 1 resulted in a. the re-establishment of the Tsar’s control over the army. b. a renewed and effecti ve war effort. c. a complete break down of army discipline. d. increased authority of the Russian military elite. e. large nu mbers of new recruits. Lenin’s appeal t o the people of Ru ssia centered on a. ending t he war and gi ving land t o t he peasants and power to t he soviets. b. his personal charisma. c. giving all power to the Duma. d. victory over Germany throu gh renewed war effort. e. support of the K ornilov plot against K erensky. As a result of the Treaty of Brest-Lit ovsk, Ru ssi a a. acquired consi derable territory . b. re-entered the war on t he German si de. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. c. was allowed to quit the war with little lost or gained. d. agreed t o spread the revolution to western Europe. e. lost one-t hird of its population. Which of the following was not inclu ded in the Treaty of Versailles? a. A clause that placed blame for the war on Germany and its allies b. A clause that assi gned blame for t he war on all European countri es equally c. German coloni es t aken away d. German territ ory gi ven to Poland e. Germany allowed t o k eep Alsace-Lorraine but forced t o gi ve u p the city of Danzi g The most anti-German of the major powers represented at the Versailles treaty conference in 1919 was a. Clemenceau of France. b. Lloy d George of Brit ain. ç Wilson of the United States. d. Orlando of Italy. e. Lenin of the Sovi et Union. The second Baffle of the Marne resulted in a. the bi ggest French defeat of the war. b. a virtual stalemate. c. an i mpressi ve German victory that boosted morale at home. d. a Ru ssi an vict ory at the east ern front, but a French loss in t he west. e. a deci sive loss for the Germans. This leader of the German left scorned moderat e socialism and stressed t he revolutionary character of Marxism. a. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg b. Tsarina Alexandra c. Paul von Hindenburg d. Rosa Luxemburg e. Alexander Kerensky Which of the following baffles resulted in a st alemat e and the end of the German dream t o u se the Schlieffen Plan t o capture France? a. The Battle of Verdun b. The first Battle of the Mame c. The Battle of the Somme d. The Battle of Ypres e. The second Battle of the Marne SELF-TEST MULTIPLE-CHOICE ANSWERS 1. a. No. Once German unification had been achieved (18 71), Bismarck declared Germany to be a “satisfi ed” power. (See pages 888-9.) b. No. Once unification had been accompli shed, Bismarck devot ed hi s considerable talents to the maintenance of peace and the status qu o in Europe. (See pages 888-9.) c. Correct. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the ri val aspirations of Au stria and Russia in the Balkans were a major t hreat to peace, which Bismarck restrained t hrou gh the alliance sy stem, which also isolated France. (See pages 888-9.) d. No. Actually, one of t he pillars of Bismarck’s diplomacy was t he isolation of a hostile France. (See pages 888-9.) e. No. Bi smarck want ed t o establi sh a balance of power. (See page 888-9.) 2. a. No. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e (Au stria, Germany, and Ru ssia) was formed in 18 73; the Alliance of the Three Emperors (same members) was formed in 1881; the Triple Alliance (Au stria, Germany, and Italy ) in 188 2. (See page 888.) b. Correct. The Three Emperors’ League (Austri a, Germany , and Russia) was formed in 1873; the Alliance of t he Three Emperors (same members) was formed in 188 1; t he Triple Alliance (Au stria, Germany, and Italy ) in 188 2. (See page 888.) c. No. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e (Au stria, Germany, and Ru ssia) was formed in 18 73; the Alliance of the Three Emperors (same members) was formed in 1881; the Triple Alliance (Au stria, Germany, and Italy ) in 188 2. (See page 888.) d. No. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e (Au stria, Germany, and Ru ssia) was formed in 18 73; the Alliance of the Three Emperors (same members) was formed in 1881; the Triple Alliance (Au stria, Germany, and Italy ) in 188 2. (See page 888.) e. No. The Three Emperors’ Leagu e (Au stria, Germany, and Ru ssia) was formed in 18 73; the Alliance of the Three Emperors (same members) was formed in 1881; the Triple Alliance i s, Germany, and It aly) in 188 2. (See page 888.) 3. a. No. The Greek Revolution had occurred in the 1820s and had no appreci able impact on World War!. (See pages 890-I and Chapter 23.) b. No. The British royal family was of German ancestry . (See pages 890-1.) c. No. There was no German-French entent e before the war. (See pages 890-1.) d. Correct. The passage of the German Naval Bill in 1907, which mandated t he construction of heavily armed battleships, hei ght ened t he already strong t ensi on bet ween Britain and Germany. (See pages 890-i .) e. No. The British had been guarantors of Belgian neutrality for decades; indeed it was the German invasion of Belgium in Au gust 1914 t hat prompted the British declaration of war. (See pages 890-1.) 4. a. No. To conquer Britain, a country would have to invade across the Channel; this was not t he aim of the Schlieffen Plan. (See page 894.) b. No. Not exactly; the Schlieffen Plan called for a holding acti on against the Ru ssi ans until France could be neutralized. (See page 894.) c. Correct. Hoping to outflank and encircle the French armi es, the Schlieffen Plan called for a thrust int o Belgium and then t o sweep down the coast of France before turning inland to take Pari s. (See page 894.) d. No. France was t he focus of the Schlieffen Plan, not Belgium. (See page 894.) e. No. Italy managed to st ay neutral at the outbreak of World War I. (See page 894.) 5. a. No. Alt hou gh British appeasement of the Germans would be a factor in W orld War I!, in the First W orld W ar the English responded quickly to the invasion of Belgiu m. (See pages 894-5.) b. Correct. Nationalism, both in the Balkans where it had spark ed the “Third Balk an War” and in Europe, in general, where it spawned intense patriotic feelings, was perhaps the most import ant cause of W orld W ar!. (See pages 894-5.) c. No. Au stria insist ed on its right t o intervene in the Balk ans. (See pages 894-5.) d. No. Many historians argue that Germany deliberately start ed the “Third Balk an War” with the “blank check ” gi ven Au stria, but t his reflected t he failure t o incorporate the German Empire into t he international sy stem. (See pages 894-5.) e. No. Actually, once Bismarck had been dismissed, Germany lost control of t he int ernati onal system. (See pages 894-5.) 6. a. No. With W orld War I, socialism became a reali stic blueprint rather than a ut opian dream; as a result of the need t o avoi d any labor disturbances, socialist leaders entered government for t he first time. (See pages 902 and 904.) b. No. On t he contrary, in order t o assure a t otal commit ment t o t he war effort , union and soci alist leaders were incorporat ed into the political and economic decision-making apparati for t he first time. (See page 902.) c. No. W hile t he outbreak of war cau sed a surge in nat ionalist feeling, by the time t he war was over t his was far from t he case. (See page 902.) d. Correct. As more and more women entered the industrial labor force, thu s contributing to the war effort, they became liberated both economically and politically, gaining the right t o vot e. (See page 902.) e. No. Actually, t he war created greater social equality and lessened t he wealth gap; indeed the lowest echelons on the soci al ladder lived better t han ever before. (See page 902.) 7. a. No. In fact, one of Lenin’s most si gnificant contribu tions t o Marxi st i deology was the concept of social revolution in a back ward country , t he “weakest link.” (See page 906.) b. Correct. Lenin’s revolutionary ideology inclu ded t he i mport ance of a professional, revolutionary party tightly controlled by t he central leadership. (See page 906.) c. No. Lenin eschewed the i dea of a democratic workers’ party, stressing inst ead t he import ance of a highly disciplined work ers’ party ti ghtly controlled by the revolutionary elite. (See page 906.) d. No. The cornerstone of Lenin’s (and the Bolsheviks’) su ccess in 1917 was t heir denunciati on of t he war and t he provisi onal government’s continu ation of the war effort. (See page 906.) e. No. Lenin understood t hat Man’s theori es would have to be modified to fit t he Russian case. (See page 906.) 8. a. No. With the collapse of the war effort, Germany su ffered a sociali st revolution while Austria-Hungary brok e apart, with bot h nationali st and socialist revoluti ons erupting in the defunct empire. (See pages 911-12.) b. No. Alt hou gh there were mutineers in the French army in 1916 and 1917, England and France di d not experience revolution. (See pages 911-12.) c. No. Germany did undergo revolution, but It aly, save for a few disturbances, did not . (See pages 911-12.) d. Correct. With t he collapse of t he war effort , Germany su ffered a socialist revolution while Austria-Hungary brok e apart, with bot h nationali st and socialist revoluti ons erupting in the defunct empire. (See pages 911-12.) e. No. Despite a few di sturbances, France and It aly were able t o avoi d revolution, being on the winning side. (See pages 911-12.) 9. a. No. Alt hou gh the Versailles settlement was relatively harsh, it di d not split Germany into two parts; this would be a provisi on of the post-W orld War!! settlement. (See pages 912-14 and Chapt er 30.) b. No. Both Great Brit ain and the United States agreed t o such a defensi ve alliance (in return France gave up its demand for the creation of a bu ffer st ate in the Rhineland), but the United States never ratified it. (See pages 912-14.) c. No. Ru ssi an borders were not treat ed at Versailles, as the Bolshevik government was not invited t o participate. (See pages 912-14.) d. No. The treaty produ ced great resent ment among the German people who felt t hey were being unfairly blamed and punished for the war. (See pages 912-14.) e. Correct. Although an exact figure was not determi ned, the peacemak ers at Versailles di d det ermine t hat the Germans would have to pay for t he damages caused by t he war. (See page 914.) 10. a. No. As Bi smarck was fond of repeating, aft er the unification had been complet ed, Germany was a “satisfied” power. (See pages 888-9.) b. No. Bi smarck did not desire t o add any non-Germans to the empire; Au stria-Hungary was more valuable as an ally. (See pages 888-9.) c. No. W hile Bismarck was not an avi d expansioni st, he was willing to do anyt hing he beli eved was in Germany ’s best int erests. (See pages 88 8-9.) 11. 12. 13. 14. d. Correct. As Bismarck was fond of repeating, after the uni fication had been completed, Germany was a “satisfied” power. (See pages 888-9.) e. No. Actually, Bismarck was not an ardent i mperialist and entered the “great game” only reluctantly; t he naval buildu p occurred after his di smissal. (See pages 888-9 and Chapter 26.) a. No. Young K aiser William II’s deci sion to allow the Reinsurance Treaty wit h Russia t o lapse drove the Russians t o ally with t he French, thu s encircling Germany; Austria remained allied throughout the war. (See pages 890-1.) b. No. The decisi on t o allow the Reinsurance Treaty to lapse drove t he Ru ssians to ally with the French, encircling Germany; Germany had no alliances with England at the end of the nineteent h century. (See pages 890-1.) c. No. Young K aiser William II’s deci sion to allow the Reinsurance Treaty wit h Russia t o lapse drove the Russians t o ally with t he French, thu s encircling Germany. (See pages 890-1.) d. Correct. Young Kai ser William II’s decisi on t o allow t he Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to lapse drove the Russians to ally with the French, t hus encircling Germany. (See pages 8901.) e. No. Young K aiser William II’s deci sion to allow the Reinsurance Treaty wit h Russia t o lapse drove the Russians t o ally with t he French, thu s encircling Germany. (See pages 890-1.) a. No. Germany ’s bellicose “saber-rattling” in this crisis helped strengthen the belief that Germany was a t hreat to peace; it drove France and England t o seek a rapprochement, while Germany was i solated. (See page 890.) b. Correct. Germany’s bellicose “saber-rattling” in thi s cri sis helped strengthen the belief that Germany was a t hreat to peace; it drove France and England t o seek a rapprochement, while Germany was i solated. (See page 890.) c. No. Germany ’s bellicose “saber-rattling” in this crisis helped strengthen the belief that Germany was a t hreat to peace; it drove France and England t o seek a rapprochement, white Germany was i solated. (See page 890.) d. No. After the Moroccan crisi s, many came to see Germany as t hreat to world st ability. (See page %90.) e. No. Germany ’s bellicose “saber-rattling” in this crisis helped strengthen the belief that Germany was a t hreat to peace; it drove France and England t o seek a rapprochement, while Germany was i solated. (See page 890.) a. No. W hile Russia was concerned with events in the Balk ans, Austria-Hungary and t he Ottoman Empire had the most at stak e in t he region. (See pages 891-3.) b. No. W hile Germany was concerned with the well-being of it s only ally Au stria, Au striaHungary and the Ott oman Empire-being multinati onal empires located in this areawere endangered by nationalist revolution. (See pages 891-3.) c. No. The Ottoman Empire, a multinational empire i n the Balkans, faced t he constant threat and pressure of nati onalist revolution; France had only business and diplomatic interests there. (See pages 891-3.) d. Correct. Austri a-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, both multinational empires and located in thi s area, were constantly threatened by nationalist revolution. (See pages 891-3.) e. No. Ru ssi a had i mperi al and diplomatic interest s in t he Balk ans (and concern for their Slavic “brot hers”); Germany had an interest in Austria’s fat e; Austri a-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire were the most threatened. (See pages 891-3.) a. No. Ru ssi a, with its back ward transportati on and communicati on syst em, was forced into total rather than partial mobilization by the Austri an invasi on of Serbi a; western Europe soon followed. (See page 894.) b. No. Germany , bound by the timetables of the Schlieffen Plan and forced to respond to Russia’s t otal mobilization, invaded Belgium; soon all of Europe was at war. (See page 894.) c. Correct. Russia, with its back ward transportation and communicati on syst em, was forced into tot al rat her than partial mobilization by the Austrian invasion of Serbia; the rest of Europe soon followed suit. (See page 894.) 15. 16, 17. 18. d. No. Britain declared war on Germany in response t o the invasi on of Belgiu m, an acti on mandated by the ri gid Schlieffen Plan. (See page 894.) e. No. Italy st ayed out of the fi ghting in t he initial phases of t he war. (See page 894.) a. Correct. Aft er the failure of the Schlieffen Plan, war on the western front bogged down into the trench warfare and bloody, inconclu sive bat tles associ ated with W orld War I. (Sec pages 895-7.) b. No. At the end of the war, Allied troops did advance into Germany; prior to that , war on the western front was charact erized by the trench warfare and bloody, inconclu sive battles associat ed with W orld War I. (See pages 895-7.) c. No. Actually, German armies bypassed t he German-French border and attack ed France throu gh Belgiu m; the western front was charact erized by trench warfare and long, bloody , inconclusi ve battles. (See pages 895-7.) d. No. The western front quickly soli dified along a line of trenches stretching from Switzerland to the Atlantic Ocean. (See pages 895-7.) e. No. There was a massive propaganda campaign waged, to go along with the massi ve slaughter of men on t he western front. (See pages 895-7.) a. Correct. Spark ed by t he need to mobilize the entire resources of t heir stat es, European government s adopted planning of, and thorou gh involvement in, t heir economies. (See pages 9 0 0 - I. ) b. No. In fact, t he reverse is tru e; sparked by the need to mobilize the entire resources of their states, European governments adopt ed planning of and t horough involvement in their economies. (See pages 900-1.) c. No. Sparked by the need t o mobilize t he entire resources of their states, European government s adopted planning of and t horou gh involvement in t heir economies. (See pages 9 0 0 - I. ) d. No. Sparked by the need t o mobilize t he entire resources of their states, European government s adopted planning of, and thorou gh involvement in, t heir economies. (See pages 900-1.) e. No. In fact, t he t otal war effort blurred t he di stincti ons bet ween civilian and soldier. (See pages 900-1.) a. Correct. The participation and contribution of women resulted in their economic and political emancipati on, with greater opportunities for employ ment, personal freedom, and even t he vote. (See pages 901-2.) b. No. The participation and contribution of women resulted in t heir economic and political emancipati on, with greater opportunities for employ ment , personal freedom, and even t he vot e. (See pages 901-2.) c. No. On t he contrary, t he participation and contribu tion of women resulted in their economic and political emancipation, with greater opportunities for employ ment, personal freedom, and even the vote. (See pages 901-2.) d. No. Actually, t he participati on and contribution of women resulted in t heir economic and political emancipati on, with greater opportunities for employ ment, personal freedom, and even t he vote. (See pages 901-2.) e. No. W hile women did gain the vote in many countries, this was not tru e every where. (See pages 901-2.) a. No. Army Order #1, which essentially placed aut hority in the hands of elected committees, thorou ghly destroy ed discipline in the Russian army. (See page 906.) b. No. In fact, t he Petrograd Soviet ’s Army Order No. I thwarted the provisi onal government’s attempt t o continue the war effort by completing t he break down of army discipline. (See page 906.) c. Correct. Army Order # 1, which essentially placed authority in t he hands of elected committees, t horoughly destroy ed discipline in the Russian army. (See page 906.) d. No. On t he contrary, Army Order No. 1 took military authority from t he hands of Ru ssian officers’ corps and placed it in the hands of committees of enlisted soldi ers. (See page 906.) 22. 23. 24. 25. e. No. Actually, t he Ru ssian army was shrinking daily, as more and more soldiers “vot ed with their feet ,” returning t o t heir villages t o join in the seizure of land. (See page 906.) a. Correct. Clemenceau-reflecting the fact that most of t he war and destructi on had occurred in French territory , and reflecting fear of future German aggression and French hostility-was the most anti-German. (See pages 913-4.) b. No. Even t hou gh Lloy d George had been reelected on a revenge-minded platform, the British pri me mini ster favored a more leni ent peace settlement. (See pages 913-4.) c. No. Wilson, with his “pragmatic i dealism,” hoped t o create a peace settlement without indemnities or reparations. (See pages 913-4.) d. No. Orlando was not necessarily anti-German but was concerned to garner the greatest rewards possible, mostly at the expense of Au stria. (See pages 913-4.) e. No. Lenin di d not att end the treaty conference as t he Ru ssi ans were not invited. (See pages 913-4.) a. No. At first successful, the exhausted German army was stopped 35 miles from Paris and then steadily pushed back by the Allied troops, which were greatly strengthened by fresh U.S. troops, a defeat t hat ended the war. (See page 911.) b. No. At first successful, the exhausted German army was stopped 35 miles from Paris and then steadily pushed back by the Allied troops, which were greatly strengthened by fresh U.S. troops, a defeat t hat ended the war. (See page 911.) c. No. At first successful, the exhausted German army was stopped 35 miles from Paris and then steadily pushed back by the allied troops, which were greatly strengthened by fresh U.S. troops, a defeat t hat ended t he war. (See page 911.) d. No. In fact, Russia had already left the war; in the West , the Germans su ffered a resounding defeat that ended the war. (See page 911.) e. Correct. At first successful, the exhau sted German army was stopped 35 miles from Paris and then steadily pushed back by the Allied troops, which were greatly strengthened by fresh U.S. troops, a defeat t hat ended the war. (See page 911.) a. No. Bethmann-Hollweg was the chancellor of the German Empire at the outbreak and during the early y ears of the war and consequently not a radical revolutionary. (See pages 8934.) b. No. Tsarina Alexandra was a German but was also the t sarina of t he Ru ssian Empire and an archconservati ve. (See page 905.) c. No. Paul von Hindenburg was not a lefti st. (See page 905.) d. Correct. Rosa Luxemburg, “Red Rosa,” was the German equi valent of Lenin; she stressed radical revolution, was i mplicated in an abortive upri sing, and was execut ed. (See page 912.) e. No. Kerensky was t he moderate socialist leader of the Russian provi sional government. (See pages 905-6.) a. No. The Battle of Verdun was t he German attempt to knock France out of the war by “bleeding t hem white” in the spring and su mmer of 1916. (See pages 895-6.) b. Correct. As a result of t he overextension of t he German lines, a gap had developed, which the French attack ed with all available forces (employ ing taxi s t o transport troops), successfully st opping the German advance. (See page 895.) c. No. The Battle of the Somme, in the su mmer of 1916, was anot her of the long, bloody, and inconclusi ve battles fou ght on the western front. (See pages 895-6.) d. No. The first Battle of the Marne doomed the Schlieffen Plan. (See pages 895-6.) e. No. The second Battle of the Marne was the last-gasp effort by t he Germans to win t he war; the Allied victory led to t he collapse of Germany and t he end of the war. (See pages 895-6, 911.) ...
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