Sociology Review 2
– Lies between large-scale macro forces such as the economy or human
societies and everyday human social interaction and includes communities, organizations,
race, ethnicity, gender, age, income.
Socially defined positions within a large group or society.
– Social position that is assigned at birth.
– Social position that is achieved throughout life.
- Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual's social
positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example,
a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases his or her
status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases his or her status.
- Term used to denote the social position, which is the primary identifying
characteristic of an individual. The master status, whether ascribed or achieved, overshadows
all other social positions of the status set in most or all situations. A status that has
exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life. A master
status can be achieved or ascribed.
- Relating to how individuals and groups interact and interpret
various cultural symbols. For example having a lot of cars, jewelry, etc.
Set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position.
Role strain –
Pressure from multiple roles a person plays. Ex: Student – Roles are to
come to class, participate, sports, clubs, social life. Student is a STATUS that has ROLES.
– Person has multiple statuses that make multiple roles become
incompatible, conflicting, and contradictory expectations.
Ex: Student, child, bf/gf, siblings,
– Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who
interact with one another on a regular basis.
- A typically small social group whose members share close, personal,
enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another,
shared activities and culture, and long periods of time spent together. Examples include
family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups (team sports groups, academic
– People interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and
their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. Since secondary groups are
established to perform functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable.
– Organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors that respond to basic
social needs. Enduring sets of ideas about how to accomplish goals and solve problems. Each
institution has: institutionalized values and norms, institutionalized culture, institutionalized
statuses and roles, institutionalized structure.