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Sociology Review 2

Sociology Review 2 - Sociology Review 2 Mesosociology Lies...

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Sociology Review 2 Mesosociology – Lies between large-scale macro forces such as the economy or human societies and everyday human social interaction and includes communities, organizations, race, ethnicity, gender, age, income. Status – Socially defined positions within a large group or society. Ascribed Status – Social position that is assigned at birth. Achieved Status – Social position that is achieved throughout life. Status inconsistency - Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual's social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases his or her status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases his or her status. Master Status - Term used to denote the social position, which is the primary identifying characteristic of an individual. The master status, whether ascribed or achieved, overshadows all other social positions of the status set in most or all situations. A status that has exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life. A master status can be achieved or ascribed. Status symbol/marker - Relating to how individuals and groups interact and interpret various cultural symbols. For example having a lot of cars, jewelry, etc. Role – Set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position. Role strain – Pressure from multiple roles a person plays. Ex: Student – Roles are to come to class, participate, sports, clubs, social life. Student is a STATUS that has ROLES. Role conflict – Person has multiple statuses that make multiple roles become incompatible, conflicting, and contradictory expectations. Ex: Student, child, bf/gf, siblings, employee. Group – Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. Primary groups - A typically small social group whose members share close, personal, enduring relationships. These groups are marked by members' concern for one another, shared activities and culture, and long periods of time spent together. Examples include family, childhood friends, and highly influential social groups (team sports groups, academic groups, etc...). Secondary groups – People interact on a less personal level than in a primary group, and their relationships are temporary rather than long lasting. Since secondary groups are established to perform functions, people’s roles are more interchangeable. Social institution – Organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors that respond to basic social needs. Enduring sets of ideas about how to accomplish goals and solve problems. Each institution has: institutionalized values and norms, institutionalized culture, institutionalized statuses and roles, institutionalized structure.
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